Table 3

Factor loadings of the empowerment items (n = 197)
Empowerment factor label and item (tested empirical dimension) Factor 1 Factor 2 Factor 3
  Positive attitude and sense of control
  I feel useful in my daily life despite my condition (I) .814
  I feel I have a very good life despite my health problems (I) .802
  I feel like I am actively involved in life despite my health problems (I) .790
  I can live a normal life despite my condition (I) .785
  I am still doing interesting things in my life despite my health problems (I) .744
  I have plans to do enjoyable things despite my health condition (I) .739
  *My health problems stop me from enjoying my life (I) .703
  I have a positive outlook towards my condition (I) .701
  I find my health problems take over my life (I) .673
  I feel a sense of control over my condition (PC) .672
  I have a hopeful outlook towards my condition (I) .668
  I am capable of handling my condition (PC) .661
  I can minimise the impact of my symptoms on my life (PC) .655
  I feel there is purpose and meaning in my life despite my health problems (I) .623
  *I live my life one day at a time because of my condition (PC) .581
  I actively manage my condition (PC) .553
  I am satisfied with my control over the symptoms of my condition (PC) .553
  Knowing more about my condition helps me to manage it (KU) .521
  I have the skills that help me feel in control of my condition (PC) .518
  I try to make the most of my life despite my condition (I) .493
  Without my health problems I could achieve more (I) .489
  Knowledge and confidence in decision making
  I know enough about my condition (KU) .747
  I have all the knowledge I need to manage my condition (KU) .704
  I understand my condition (KU) .657
  I would feel able to refuse a decision made by my doctor concerning my treatment (DM) .590
  I know how to handle difficulties related to my condition (PC) .582
  *I find it difficult to ask my doctor to change my treatment (DM) .543
  I have information to handle difficulties related to my condition (KU) .425 .517
  I know how to control my health problems (PC) .448 .494
  I participate in decisions concerning my health care (DM) .493
  I am confident choosing among different treatment options related to my condition with my doctor (DM) .490 .430
  I know what my test results mean (KU) .442
  I know where to go to find something out about my condition (KU) .426
  I can talk to my doctor if I change my mind concerning my treatment (DM) .407
  Enabling others
  I need to know what is happening to me and why (KU) .686
  I have helped people who have similar conditions find different ways to cope (EO) .627
  I have shared my experience of managing my condition with other people with health problems (EO) .627
  I feel frustrated for other people who are struggling with similar conditions (EO) .611
  I have shared with others how I keep myself well (EO) .585
  I would acquire more health information when needed (KU) .558
  I am aware I can change my mind about a treatment (DM) .541
  I am aware I can choose different treatment options (DM) .406 .506
  *I’m not bothered about understanding health information (KU) .498
  I often request additional health information from my doctor (DM) 487
  I would refuse a treatment if I thought it was not the best thing for me (DM) .458
  I have shared my understanding of my condition with people who have similar conditions (EO) .423
  People who are struggling with similar conditions often ask me for advice (EO) .421

Note: Component extraction method was Principal Axis Factoring, with a cut-point for including factor loadings (>0.4); *Negative worded item; Tested empirical dimensions; (I), Identity; (PC), Personal control; (KU), Knowledge and understanding; Four of 51 items failed to load any factor, ‘I am satisfied with the level of health information that I have available to me’ (KU); ‘My own experience has increased my understanding of what it is like for other people to have this condition’ (EO); ‘I accept that I have to live with my condition’ (I); ‘I sometimes take health information to my doctor’ (DM).

Small et al.

Small et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:263   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-263

Open Data