Table 4

The attitudes of physicians with different levels on patient safety culture
Items Residents Attending physicians Deputy directors Chief physicians χ2 P
NPR NOR NPR NOR NPR NOR NPR NOR
A1. People support one another in this facility 98 10 77 8 57 7 38 6 0.76 0.86
A3. When a lot of work needs to be done quickly, we work together as a team to get the work done 98 10 69 16 44 20 39 5 14.98 0.01
A4. In facility, people treat each other with respect 99 9 72 13 58 6 38 6 2.77 0.43
A11. When one area in this unit gets really busy, others help out 88 20 60 25 49 15 34 10 3.16 0.37
B2. Manager says a good word when he/she sees a job done according to established 95 13 67 18 47 17 33 11 6.81 0.08
B3. Whenever pressure builds up, my supervisor/manager wants us to work faster, even if it means taking shortcuts 66 42 56 29 47 17 34 10 5.03 0.17
B4. My supervisor/manager overlooks patient safety problems that happen over and over 95 13 66 19 49 15 33 11 5.78 0.12
A6. We are actively doing things to improve patient safety. 93 15 70 15 49 15 38 6 3.00 0.39
A13. After we make changes to improve patient safety, we evaluate their effectiveness. 95 13 69 16 55 9 39 5 2.18 0.54
F1. Hospital management provides a work climate that promotes patient safety. 84 24 42 43 40 24 27 17 16.91 0.01
F8. The actions of hospital management show that patient safety is a top priority. 90 18 61 24 46 18 36 8 5.31 0.15
F9. Hospital management seems interested in patient safety only after an adverse event happens 77 31 51 34 38 26 27 17 3.80 0.28
A10. It is just by chance that more serious mistakes don't happen around here. 96 12 77 8 57 7 41 3 0.74 0.86
A17. We had patient safety problems in this unit. 50 58 64 21 45 19 36 8 26.66 0.01
A18. Our procedures and systems are good at preventing errors from happening. 76 32 40 45 38 26 20 24 13.79 0.01
C1. We are given feedback about changes put into place based on event reports. 69 39 46 39 32 32 22 22 4.41 0.22
C3. We are informed about errors that happen in this unit. 64 44 45 40 30 34 24 20 2.54 0.47
C5. In this unit, we discuss ways to prevent errors from happening again. 47 61 40 45 46 18 32 12 20.78 0.01
C2. Staff will freely speak up if they see something that may negatively affect patient care. 76 32 50 35 29 35 20 24 13.84 0.01
C4. Staffs are afraid to ask questions when something does not seem right. 83 25 64 21 47 17 30 14 1.30 0.73
C6. Staffs feel free to question the decisions or actions of those with more authority. 78 30 68 17 55 9 31 13 5.77 0.12
A8. Staff feel like their mistakes are held against them. 92 16 66 19 45 19 34 10 5.49 0.14
A12. When an event is reported, it feels like the person is being written up, not the problem. 99 9 69 16 47 17 35 9 10.46 0.02
A16. Staff worry that mistakes they make are kept in their personnel file. 99 9 77 8 57 7 40 4 0.33 0.96
F4. There is good cooperation among hospital units that need to work together. 85 23 44 41 32 32 23 21 21.89 0.01
A2. We have enough staff to handle the workload. 65 43 36 49 35 29 19 25 7.56 0.06
A5. Staffs in this unit work longer hours than is best for patient care. 64 43 49 36 38 26 31 13 2.16 0.54
A7. We use more agency/temporary staff than is best for patient care. 66 42 45 40 40 24 20 24 4.47 0.21
A14. We work in "crisis mode" trying to do too much, too quickly. 90 18 67 18 53 11 40 4 3.01 0.39

Legend:NPR, Number of positive response answers; NOR, Number of other response answers.

Nie et al.

Nie et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:228   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-228

Open Data