Table 1

Changes in user fee policy during the 1990s, Zimbabwe
Early 1991 Enforcement of user fee collection at all health facilities at the start of ESAP
November 1992 User fee exemption level raised from ZWD 150 to ZWD 400
January 1993 Temporary abolition of fees at rural health centres because of the drought
June 1993 Reinstitution of user fees at rural health centres
January 1994 Substantial increase in user fees at all health institutions
March 1995 Abolition of user fees at rural health centres and rural hospitals
October 1996 Increase in user fees at all referral hospitals: services at rural hospitals and health centres remain free of charge
January 1997 Start of the Health Services fund; retention of user fee revenues at the district and facility level: reinstitution of user fees at (some) rural mission hospitals
1998 No more health grants for the municipalities; higher than average increase in user fees
November 1999 Substantial increase in user fees at government health institutions

Source: Bijlmakers, 2003.

Chirwa et al.

Chirwa et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:197   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-197

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