Table 3

GEE models fitting temporal trends of cost indices and comparison of subgroup trends
Overall cost Clinical cost GCEP cost Personal cost
Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P Mean 95% CI P
A: Temporal trends
Whole Sample* −106 (−117, -95) < 0.001 −40 (−46, -34) < 0.001 −48 (−63, -34) < 0.001 −9 (−12, -4) < 0.001
  Age (year) * 50-59 −109 (−124, -94) < 0.001 −41 (−49, -33) < 0.001 −40 (−60, -19) < 0.001 −7 (−12, -1) 0.01
> = 60 −102 (−117, -87) < 0.001 −37 (−47, -28) < 0.001 −59 (−78, -39) < 0.001 −10 (−15, -5) < 0.001
  Gender* Male −101 (−115, -87) < 0.001 −37 (−45, -29) < 0.001 −44 (−62, -26) < 0.001 −7 (−12, -1) 0.009
Female −112 (−131, -93) < 0.001 −43 (−53, -34) < 0.001 −54 (−77, -32) < 0.001 −10 (−15, -4) 0.001
  Risk Profile* High −112 (−123, -100) < 0.001 −43 (−49, -36) < 0.001 −73 (−87, -60) < 0.001 −13 (−17, -10) < 0.001
Moderate −46 (−61, -32) < 0.001 −18 (−28, -7) 0.001 26 (3, 49) 0.027 5 (−3, 14) 0.212
B: Comparisons between subgroups
  > = 60 year vs. 50-59 21 (−23, 65) 0.36 17 (−5, 40) 0.127 34 (−17, 84) 0.188 4 (−11, 18) 0.634
  Male vs. Female 10 (−35, 54) 0.675 1 (−21, 22) 0.965 15 (−34, 65) 0.536 7 (−8, 21) 0.382
  High vs. Moderate 192 (155, 228) < 0.001 87 (68, 104) < 0.001 226 (190, 263) < 0.001 39 (26, 52) < 0.001

Abbreviations: C.I., confidence interval.

* Means are average decrement/increment across costing period.

Means are differences between two subgroups across costing period.

Zhou et al.

Zhou et al. BMC Health Services Research 2013 13:139   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-13-139

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