Table 3

Descriptive information of study variables by unit types and results of one-way between-group analysis of variance (ANOVA) tests on differences of means across 3 unit types

Unit typea


Variable\Mean (SD)

Medical

(n = 531)

Surgical

(n = 166)

Med-surgical combined

(n = 366)

One-way ANOVA tests (p)


Total fall rate/1000 patient-days

4.52

(3.14)

3.26

(2.73)

3.82

(2.97)

F = 13.14**

(p < 0 .001)


Injurious fall rate/1000 patient-days

1.03

(1.13)

.74

(1.04)

.81

(1.09)

F = 6.54** (p = 0.002)


Total productive nursing hours/patient-day

9.59

(1.69)

8.12

(1.47)

9.27

(3.05)

F = 26.62**

(p < 0 .001)


Percentage of productive nursing hours provided by RNs

72.87%

(6.89)

71.80%

(12.49)

73.45%

(9.61)

F = 1.94

(p = 0.14)


Percentage of patients aged ≥ 65 years

39.09%

(18.84)

35.90%

(10.35)

31.28%

(13.64)

F = 22.98**

(p < 0 .001)


Average CMI value

1.87

(.84)

1.88

(.46)

1.52

(.56)

F = 26.15**

(p < 0 .001)


Percentage of patients with altered mental status at admission

10.19%

(11.26)

7.53%

(8.42)

10.77%

(14.02)

F = 4.32*

(p = 0.01)


Percentage of patients with hearing difficulties at admission

12.53%

(11.76)

8.92%

(10.45)

10.83%

(9.75)

F = 7.29** (p = 0.001)


Call light use rate/patient-day

6.00

(3.11)

5.85

(2.70)

7.29

(7.98)

F = 7.39** (p = 0.001)


Patient call light use rate/patient-day (in 10 equal groups; 10 = least frequent, 100 = most frequent)

53.20

(28.85)

51.02

(22.53)

58.96

(29.41)

F = 6.34** (p = 0.002)


Call light response time in sec as well as in min and sec

599.33/

9 min 59 sec

(3359.26)

548.26/

9 min 8 sec

(1385.52)

1196.54/

19 min 57 sec

(5183.10)

F = 2.86

(p = 0.06)


Call light response time (in 10 equal groups; 10 = fastest, 100 = slowest)

54.24

(28.54)

52.55

(29.16)

56.44

(29.68)

F = 1.19

(p = 0.30)


a Values are means (SD)

*P < .05; **P < .01

Tzeng et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:84   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-84

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