Table 4

Amount of costs when medical services are used
Parameter Exp(Estimate) [95% CI]
Physician costs Therapist costs Hospital costs Sum of costs (physician, therapist, hospital)
(N = 2,973) (N = 880) (N = 193) (N = 3,038)
Intercept 108.98 [99.10–119.83] 394.76 [295.91–526.63] 1778.92 [1298.02–2437.99] 302.84 [252.57–363.13]
Sex
Ref: Female 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Male 1.05 [0.98–1.13] 1.26 [1.01–1.57]* 0.98 [0.78–1.24] 1.11 [0.95–1.29]
Study centre
Ref: Munich 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Leipzig 1.06 [0.94–1.20] 0.76 [0.53–1.09] 1.21 [0.81–1.81] 1.26 [0.93–1.69]
Bad Honnef 0.99 [0.85–1.16] 0.78 [0.46–1.33] 0.91 [0.54–1.54] 0.82 [0.59–1.14]
Wesel 0.94 [0.86–1.03] 0.69 [0.52–0.91]** 0.96 [0.72–1.29] 0.71 [0.59–0.85]***
Parental education
Ref: High (>10 years) 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Low (<10 years) 1.06 [0.90–1.26] 1.19 [0.60–2.35] 0.86 [0.51–1.45] 0.88 [0.63–1.23]
Medium (=10 years) 1.08 [0.99–1.18] 1.13 [0.85–1.50] 0.89 [0.67–1.18] 1.10 [0.91–1.33]
Relative income position
Ref: > 100% of median income 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
0-60% of median income 1.04 [0.92–1.17] 1.45 [0.92–2.29] 0.79 [0.56–1.11] 1.09 [0.86–1.39]
60-100% of median income 0.99 [0.91–1.08] 1.12 [0.87–1.43] 1.18 [0.87–1.61] 1.11 [0.94–1.33]
Single parenthood
Ref: No 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Yes 1.11 [0.98–1.25] 1.55 [1.03–2.33]* 1.57 [1.02–2.43]* 1.61 [1.18–2.20]**
Exposure to tobacco smoke
Ref: No exposure 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
Not at home, but at other places 0.97 [0.87–1.08] 0.70 [0.50–0.97]* 1.33 [0.93–1.89] 1.02 [0.83–1.25]
At home (patio/balcony) 1.03 [0.93–1.14] 0.88 [0.65–1.20] 1.22 [0.88–1.71] 1.26 [1.02–1.54]*
At home (indoors) 0.92 [0.81–1.03] 1.00 [0.66–1.52] 1.83 [1.19–2.81]** 1.45 [1.11–1.89]**

Ref: Reference category.

Dependent variable: physician/therapist/hospital/sum of physician, therapist and hospital costs where respective costs >0.

Assumptions: inverse Gaussian distribution of the error terms, log-link function.

***/**/*, significant at the 0.1%/1%/5% level.

Batscheider et al.

Batscheider et al. BMC Health Services Research 2012 12:344   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-12-344

Open Data