Table 4

Multilevel linear regression of outpatient contacts of schizophrenia patients, N = 1097

Unadjusted model estimate

Adjusted model estimate

Coef.

SE

t

P value

Coef.

SE

t

P value


Sex (male)

0.17

0.06

2.69

0.00**

0.00

0.05

-0.04

0.97

Age (years)

-0.52

0.10

-5.10

0.00**

-0.12

0.11

-1.15

0.25

Marital status

Single #

1.00

1.00

Married/with partner

-0.45

0.08

-5.80

0.00**

-0.04

0.09

-0.42

0.67

Separated/divorced/widowed

-0.20

0.09

-2.09

0.04**

0.01

0.08

0.07

0.95

Employment status

Employed #

1.00

1.00

Unemployed

0.27

0.11

2.27

0.02**

0.02

0.09

0.30

0.76

Student

0.13

0.15

0.89

0.38

0.02

0.12

0.16

0.87

Looking after family or home

-0.18

0.14

-1.27

0.20

0.15

0.12

1.30

0.19

Not working, receiving welfare benefits

0.34

0.09

3.64

0.00**

0.19

0.08

2.34

0.02**

Other

0.05

0.13

0.41

0.68

-0.03

0.10

-0.30

0.76

Level of education

Primary School #

1.00

1.00

Secondary School

0.27

0.08

3.42

0.00**

0.11

0.06

1.68

0.09

No formal education and illiterate

0.32

0.09

3.57

0.00**

0.17

0.46

2.29

0.02**

Higher education (Bachelor's degree)

0.10

0.12

0.86

0.39

0.10

0.98

1.07

0.28

Type of living arrangement

Original family/other relatives or friends #

1.00

1.00

Own family

-0.38

0.08

-4.95

0.00**

-0.01

0.09

-0.18

0.86

Alone

0.06

0.12

0.52

0.60

0.18

0.09

1.96

0.05

Sheltered accommodation

0.04

0.13

0.27

0.78

0.00

0.10

0.05

0.96

Homeless

-0.15

0.24

-0.62

0.54

0.18

0.15

1.17

0.24

Residence catchment area

Centro #

1.00

1.00

Guadalmedina

-0.07

0.12

-0.56

0.57

0.05

0.08

0.64

0.52

Outside study area

-0.32

0.17

-1.87

0.06

-0.17

0.10

-1.80

0.07

Residence municipality by rurality factorÇ

Malaga (city) (-1.78: less rurality) #

1.00

1.00

Rincón de la Victoria (-1.78)

-0.19

0.18

-1.04

0.30

-0.18

10.00

-1.68

0.09

Other villages (-1.59 to - 0.61: more rurality)

-0.38

0.18

-2.03

0.04**

-0.24

0.13

-1.82

0.07

Outside area

-0.31

0.15

-2.09

0.04**

Omitted&

Clinical diagnoses (ICD-10)

F20 Schizophrenia #

1.00

1.00

F22 Persistent delusional disorders

-0.51

0.08

-6.00

0.00**

-0.15

0.07

-2.03

0.04**

F23 Acute and transient psychotic disorders

-0.07

0.11

-0.61

0.54

0.10

0.09

1.11

0.27

F25 Schizoaffective disorders

0.20

0.12

1.68

0.09

0.06

0.09

0.62

0.54

F21,F24,F28 Y F29 @

-0.28

0.15

-1.84

0.06

-0.06

0.12

-0.54

0.59

Global Level of Severity

Level I (less severity) #

1.00

1.00

Level II

0.40

0.70

5.64

0.00**

0.23

0.61

3.78

0.00**

Level III

0.97

0.11

8.87

0.00**

0.45

0.94

4.79

0.00**

Level IV (more severity)

0.74

0.21

3.48

0.00**

0.35

0.18

1.92

0.06

Type of professional who attended patients

Only psychiatrists #

1.00

1.00

Only nurses

0.22

0.10

2.18

0.03**

0.02

0.10

0.24

0.81

Both (psychiatrists and nurses)

1.31

0.53

24.98

0.00**

1.09

0.06

19.56

0.00**

Other professionals

-0.78

0.29

-2.65

0.01**

-0.91

0.29

-3.10

0.00**

Psychiatrist who attended patients

C #

1.00

1.00

B

0.00

0.13

0.00

0.99

-0.08

0.10

-0.76

0.45

L

-0.29

0.20

-1.47

0.14

-0.30

0.16

-1.90

0.06

H

0.26

0.14

1.81

0.07

0.13

0.11

1.14

0.26

E

-0.42

0.14

-3.00

0.00**

-0.50

0.11

-4.49

0.00**

D

-0.15

0.15

-0.99

0.32

-0.20

0.12

-1.71

0.09

K

-0.36

0.20

-1.79

0.07

-0.25

0.16

-1.61

0.11

F

-0.22

0.15

-1.42

0.16

-0.35

0.12

-2.83

0.00**

G

-0.28

0.15

-1.81

0.07

-0.19

0.13

-1.49

0.14

I

-0.36

0.20

-1.78

0.08

-0.40

0.14

-2.78

0.00**

A

-0.37

0.14

-2.63

0.01**

-0.26

0.11

-2.32

0.02**

J

-0.36

0.19

-1.92

0.06

-0.16

0.16

-1.00

0.32

M

-0.17

0.23

-0.75

0.45

0.08

0.18

0.41

0.68

Number of inpatient psychiatric admissions

0 admissions #

1.00

1.00

1 admission

1.00

0.16

6.36

0.00**

1.18

0.36

3.25

0.00**

2+ admissions

1.26

0.20

6.43

0.00**

1.12

0.29

3.88

0.00**

Number of readmissions

0 admissions, 0 readmissions #

1.00

1.00

Any inpatient admission, 0 readmissions

1.04

0.14

7.53

0.00**

-0.45

0.30

-1.53

0.12

Any inpatient admission, 1+ readmissions

1.33

0.27

4.92

0.00**

Omitted&

Number of days in hospital

0 day #

1.00

1.00

<19 days

1.07

0.15

7.06

0.00**

-0.26

0.21

-1.25

0.21

19+ days

1.16

0.21

5.55

0.00**

Omitted&


Multilevel linear regression with imputed data (20 data sets). Adjusted coefficients of the full model (including all variables)

# Reference groups in all references; Ç rurality index developed for the Spanish population which has range of -3.59 (minimum) to 3.78 (maximum);

@ F21 = Schizotypal disorder, F24 = Induced delusional disorder, F28 = other non-organic psychotic disorders and F29 = Unspecified non-organic psychosis;

&Omitted because of collinearity. Coef: Coeficient Beta; SE: Standard Error; t: experimental value; Transformed by logarithm (x+1). Figures in bold (**) P < 0.05.

Moreno-Küstner et al. BMC Health Services Research 2011 11:257   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-257

Open Data