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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Validity and reliability of Turkish version of "Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture" and perception of patient safety in public hospitals in Turkey

Said Bodur1* and Emel Filiz2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Public Health and Medical Statistics, Meram Faculty of Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

2 Public Health Nurse, College of Health, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

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BMC Health Services Research 2010, 10:28  doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-28

Published: 28 January 2010



The Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPS) is used to assess safety culture in many countries. Accordingly, the questionnaire has been translated into Turkish for the study of patient safety culture in Turkish hospitals. The aim of this study is threefold: to determine the validity and reliability of the translated form of HSOPS, to evaluate physicians' and nurses' perceptions of patient safety in Turkish public hospitals, and to compare finding with U.S. hospital settings.


Physicians and nurses working in all public hospitals in Konya, a large city in Turkey, were asked to complete a self-administrated patient safety culture survey (n = 309). Data collection was carried out using the Turkish version of HSOPS, developed by Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). Data were summarized as percentages, means, and SD values. Factor analysis, correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha, ANOVA, and t tests were employed in statistical analyses. Items on patient safety were categorized into 10 factors. Factor loadings and internal consistencies of dimension items were high.


Most of the scores related to dimensions, and the overall patient safety score (44%) were lower than the benchmark score. "Teamwork within hospital units" received the highest score (70%), and the lowest score belonged to the "frequency of events reported" (15%). The study revealed that more than three quarters of the physicians and nurses were not reporting errors.


The Turkish version of HSOPS was found to be valid and reliable in determining patient safety culture. This tool will be helpful in tracking improvements and in heightening awareness on patient safety culture in Turkey.