Table 2

Integrating empirical themes with theoretical constructs (preclinical phase) to achieve learning objectives and define learning activities (phase I)

Empirical themes

Theoretical constructs

Learning objectives

Learning activities

Variations in motivation for acting on the new diagnosis

Internal motivation (SDT) Self-regulatory motivation (ALT) Ambivalence (SCT)

Enhance motivation

Individual motivational interviews aimed at clarifying expectations, ambivalence (decision-balance) and assessment of self-efficacy/perceived competence at dealing with the new diagnosis. Intrinsic motivation to individual actions is supported by individual goal setting and action planning. Feed back is provided.

Lack of knowledge about health actions

Action, knowledge and environment influence each other dynamically (SCT) Knowledge acquisition (ALT) Purposeful rationale (SDT)

Support informed decision-making

Group sessions on knowledge of health risks and health actions e.g. diet, exercise, action planning is provided by multidisciplinary teams, which means that diabetes/practice nurses, dietician, physiotherapist, and GPs work to tailor an intervention to meet the specific needs of the particular group.

Lack of skills to change behavior

Skills acquisition in real settings (ALT) Action experience and support Self-efficacy (SCT) Perceived competence (SDT)


action experience

Action experiences were planned as part of each session and the participants were offered e.g. supervised aerobic exercise in safe environment, and skills training, e.g. adequate use of blood sugar measurements. During the group sessions the participants work with goal setting and action planning to prepare each of the participants for further actions after the intervention.

Need for collaboration with professionals and social support

Social reflection (ALT) Collective Self-efficacy (SCT) Social support (SCT) Social relatedness (SDT)


social involvement

The intervention is primarily group-based to support the exchange of experiences and to build up collective self-efficacy. The intervention was locally based to make local resources visible, such as health professionals, peers and environments.

ALT: Action Learning Theory SCT: Social Cognitive Theory SDT: Self-determination Theory

Maindal et al. BMC Health Services Research 2010 10:114   doi:10.1186/1472-6963-10-114

Open Data