Table 3

Knowledge of preventive measures for nurses employed in hospitals participating in the National Prevalence Measurements (NPS) and nurses employed in non-participating organizations (non-NPS) (%)

NPS (n = 380)

Non NPM (n = 142)


USEFUL PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

p-value


Prevent maceration of the skin

92.1

7.4

0.0

0.5

85.9

13.4

0.0

0.7

0.05

Take care for a clean, dry and square lower layer of bedclothes

98.4

1.6

0.0

0.0

98.6

1.4

0.0

0.0

0.73

Helping non-bedridden patients lift up or assume a different position

73.1

23.2

0.8

2.9

75.0

22.9

2.1

0.0

0.81

Involving the patient in prevention

78.4

21.6

0.0

0.0

83.1

16.9

0.0

0.0

0.23

Assessing risk by means of an instrument and clinical judgment

93.1

6.1

0.3

0.5

90.8

8.5

0.0

0.7

0.50

Using air mattresses and pillows

68.9

28.2

1.1

1.8

66.2

29.6

1.4

2.8

0.58

Using visco elastic (foam) mattresses and pillows

36.1

33.2

3.8

26.9

32.1

32.9

2.9

32.1

0.47

Smearing the skin with topical agents to prevent dehydration

37.8

42.8

14.4

5.1

31.7

45.8

12.0

10.6

0.22

Involving family/friends/caregivers in prevention

63.9

35.4

0.3

0.5

68.3

30.2

0.7

0.7

0.49

Assessing nutritional state and preventing a nutritional deficiency

94.2

5.8

0.0

0.0

94.4

4.9

0.0

0.7

0.94

Ensuring good hygiene

97.9

1.6

0.5

0.0

98.6

0.7

0.7

0.0

0.49

Using a 30-degree side to side turn at least every 4 hours

48.8

43.3

7.1

0.8

49.3

38.6

7.1

5.0

0.98

Avoid contact of the heels with the lower layer by putting a pillow under the lower legs

42.2

43.2

11.8

2.6

33.8

46.5

14.8

4.9

0.07

Preventing shearing forces

95.0

5.0

0.0

0.0

97.2

2.8

0.0

0.0

0.23

Smearing the skin with topical agents in case of urine and/or faeces incontinence

52.2

38.3

6.6

2.9

51.4

35.2

7.0

6.3

0.88


Mean number of measured judged correctly

10.6 (70.6%)

10.5 (70.0%)

0.46

σ and range

2.19; 2–15

1.88; 3–15

% having sufficient knowledge (judged ≥ 70% of measures correct)

58.4%

51.4%

0.15


NOT USEFUL PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

p-value


Using a cradle

13.4

72.6

11.3

2.7

15.7

68.6

10.0

5.7

0.69

Reactivation and mobilisation by paramedics

74.9

24.5

0.3

0.3

81.7

18.3

0.0

0.0

0.54

Wrapping the heels/elbows in natural cotton wool and bandages

4.5

30.1

54.9

10.6

4.9

28.2

52.1

14.8

0.59

Using ice compresses

0.3

4.6

79.0

16.1

0.0

6.5

69.8

23.7

0.03

Using warm compresses

0.0

5.0

87.5

7.4

0.7

9.2

79.6

10.6

0.03

Massage

19.2

41.3

33.7

5.8

15.7

36.4

40.7

7.1

0.17

Using water mattresses and pillows

22.2

41.8

18.3

17.7

26.2

40.4

11.3

22.0

0.05

Using gel mattresses and pillows

39.3

45.6

6.1

9.0

38.7

45.1

2.8

13.4

0.13

Inserting a catheter to prevent maceration of the skin

30.5

62.6

4.8

2.1

25.7

61.4

5.7

7.1

0.67

Smearing the skin (with topical agents) to prevent disturbance in blood supply caused by pressure

21.4

33.6

35.4

9.5

14.8

35.9

33.8

15.5

0.75

Using a 90-degree side to side turn at least every 4 hours

67.6

30.8

0.3

1.3

69.3

25.7

0.0

5.0

0.54

Avoid contact of heels with lower layer by using ring-shaped cushions or gloves filled with water

10.8

35.4

44.3

9.5

9.2

45.8

35.9

9.2

0.08

Using a sheepskin

2.9

28.2

64.1

4.7

2.1

35.2

59.2

3.5

0.31


Mean number of measured judged correctly

4.3 (33.0%)

3.9 (30.0%)

0.10

σ and range

2.14; 0–10

2.44; 0–9

% having sufficient knowledge (judged ≥ 70% of measures correct)

0.3%

0.0%

0.54


Because of the small number, missing values are not presented in the table

Correct answers are highlighted in bold

* difference is significant (2-tailed)

Hulsenboom et al. BMC Nursing 2007 6:2   doi:10.1186/1472-6955-6-2

Open Data