Table 2

Classification of preventive measures: knowledge about usefulness in 2003 and 1991

2003 (n = 522)

1991 (n = 351)


USEFUL PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

p-value


Preventing maceration of the skin

90.4

9.0

0.0

0.6

89.1

9.7

0.3

0.9

0.58

Ensuring a clean, dry and square lower layer of bedclothes

98.5

1.5

0.0

0.0

99.7

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.05

Helping non-bedridden patients lift up or assume a different position

73.6

23.1

1.2

2.1

62.1

29.6

3.7

4.6

0.00*

Involving patients in prevention

79.7

20.3

0.0

0.0

58.0

40.3

0.6

1.1

0.00*

Assessing risk by means of an instrument and clinical judgment

92.5

6.7

0.2

0.6

36.9

35.1

7.7

20.3

0.00*

Using air mattresses and pillows

68.1

28.6

1.2

2.1

43.6

49.9

3.7

2.8

0.00*

Using viscoelastic (foam) mattresses and pillows

35.0

33.1

3.5

28.3

21.4

48.0

13.1

17.4

0.00*

Smearing the skin with topical agents to prevent dehydration

36.1

43.6

13.7

6.6

60.0

33.4

3.4

3.1

0.44

Involving family/friends/caregivers in prevention

65.1

34.0

0.4

0.6

26.2

63.5

5.4

4.8

0.75

Assessing nutritional state and preventing nutritional deficiency

94.3

5.6

0.0

0.2

86.9

12.5

0.3

0.3

0.00*

Ensuring good hygiene

98.1

1.3

0.6

0.0

99.7

0.3

0.0

0.0

0.06

Using a 30-degree side to side turn at least every 4 hours

48.9

42.0

7.1

1.9

-

-

-

-

-

Avoiding contact of the heels with the lower layer by putting a pillow under the lower legs

40.0

44.1

12.6

3.3

-

-

-

-

-

Preventing shear forces

95.6

4.4

0.0

0.0

-

-

-

-

-

Smearing the skin with topical agents in case of urine and/or faeces incontinence

52.0

37.4

6.7

3.8

-

-

-

-

-


Mean number of measures judged correctly

10.6 of 15 (70.6%)

7.2 of 11 (65.4%)

0.00*

σ and range

2.11; 2–15

1.49; 3–11

% having sufficient knowledge (judged ≥ 70% of measures correct)

56.6%

43.0%

0.00*


NON-USEFUL PREVENTIVE MEASURES

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

Useful

Some-times

Not useful

Don't know

p-value


Using a cradle

14.1

71.5

10.9

3.5

4.8

79.5

8.8

6.8

0.00*

Reactivation and mobilisation by paramedics

76.8

22.8

0.2

0.2

52.7

45.9

0.6

0.9

0.00*

Wrapping the heels/elbows in natural cotton wool and bandages

4.6

29.6

54.1

11.7

14.8

68.7

14.0

2.6

0.00*

Using ice compresses

0.2

5.1

76.5

18.2

1.4

32.2

52.4

14.0

0.00*

Using warm compresses

0.2

6.2

85.4

8.3

4.0

40.2

44.4

11.4

0.00*

Massage

18.3

40.0

35.6

6.2

70.5

25.5

2.0

2.0

0.00*

Using water mattresses and pillows

23.3

41.4

16.4

18.9

39.6

48.7

4.6

7.1

0.00*

Using gel mattresses and pillows

39.2

45.5

5.2

10.2

20.6

57.3

4.9

17.2

0.00*

Inserting a catheter to prevent maceration of the skin

29.2

62.3

5.0

3.5

14.0

79.8

4.6

1.7

0.77

Smearing the skin (with topical agents) to prevent disturbance in blood supply caused by pressure

19.6

34.2

35.0

11.2

69.6

21.5

3.7

5.2

0.00*

Using a 90-degree side to side turn at least every 4 hours

68.1

29.4

0.2

2.3

-

-

-

-

-

Avoiding contact of heels with lower layer by using ring-shaped cushions or gloves filled with water

10.4

38.2

42.0

9.4

-

-

-

-

-

Using a sheepskin

2.7

30.1

62.8

4.4

-

-

-

-

-


Mean number of measures judged correctly

4.2 of 13 (32.3%)

3.5 of 10 (35.0%)

0.00*

σ and range

2.23; 0–10

1.60; 0–8

% having sufficient knowledge (judged ≥ 70% of measures correct)

0.2%

3.1%

0.00*


Because of the small number, missing values are not presented in the table

Correct answers are shown in bold print

* difference is significant (2-tailed)

Hulsenboom et al. BMC Nursing 2007 6:2   doi:10.1186/1472-6955-6-2

Open Data