Table 1

Methodologic Rigor Applied for Studies of Causation

Purpose Category

Methodologic Rigor


Observation concerned with the relationship between exposures and putative clinical outcomes;

Data collection is prospective;

Clearly identified comparison group(s);

Blinding of observers of outcome to exposure;

and Analysis consistent with study design.

Haynes et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2005 5:8   doi:10.1186/1472-6947-5-8

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