Example of self organizing map (associative memory). Each one of the 9-dimensional, 683 individual cases is associated with a region on the 2-dimensional map and highlighted using a 3rd dimension (an "activation bubble" with elevation and colour). The organization of individual descriptions of cases obeys similarity principles: similar cases are closely mapped and very similar cases form clusters (e.g., the green area contains most of the benign cases).
Pantazi et al. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2004 4:19 doi:10.1186/1472-6947-4-19