Table 1 

Study population 

Males 
Females 



Total 
n = 422 
n = 334 


Age 

Average ± SD 
52.4 ± 20.9 
54.8 ± 21.8 
012 months 
n = 12 
n = 8 
114 years old 
n = 22 
n = 13 
1530 years old 
n = 33 
n = 24 
3159 years old 
n = 192 
n = 142 
6079 years old 
n = 138 
n = 108 
80 years old or older 
n = 25 
n = 39 


Adult inpatient (not ICU^{a}) 
n = 287 
n = 248 
Pediatric inpatient (not ICU) 
n = 19 
n = 10 
ICU 
n = 88 
n = 59 
Emergency room 
n = 5 
n = 5 
Primary care clinic 
n = 4 
n = 4 
Other outpatient clinic 
n = 15 
n = 8 


Monotherapy with phenytoin 
n = 200 
n = 171 
One additional antiepileptic drugs^{b} 
n = 176 
n = 129 
Two additional antiepileptic drugs^{b} 
n = 38 
n = 29 
Three or more additional antiepileptic drugs^{b} 
n = 8 
n = 5 


No seizures within 24 hrs of phenytoin drug level 
n = 265 
n = 228 
Seizure(s) within 24 hrs of phenytoin drug level 
n = 157 
n = 106 


^{a }ICU intensive care unit ^{b }Number of patients administered other antiepileptic drugs: carbamazepine, 15; clonazepam, 5; diazepam, 10; felbamate, 9; lacosamide, 16; lamotrigine, 30; levetiracetam, 167; lorazepam, 56; pentobarbital, 14; phenobarbital, 51; primidone, 6; topiramate 19; valproic acid 44; zonisamide, 13 

Krasowski and Penrod BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 2012 12:7 doi:10.1186/14726947127 