Table 6

Subgroup interactions for meta-analysis of interventions
Multimedia vs. control
# of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Control
Nonstandard 3 0.23 −0.41 0.88 0.8
Standard 4 0.37 −0.45 1.19
Overall 7 0.29 −0.22 0.8
Proctor present for control?
No 1 0.57 0.17 0.97 0.65
Yes 5 0.37 -0.44 1.17
Proctor present for intervention?
No 2 0.51 0.14 0.88 0.85
Yes 4 0.41 -0.52 1.34
Subjects
Patients 4 0.69 0.14 1.25 0.33
Volunteers 1 0.16 -0.76 1.09
Setting
Real 4 0.12 -0.65 0.89 0.25
Simulated 3 0.64 0.22 1.06
Enhanced consent form vs. control
# of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Control
Nonstandard 3 2.33 0.01 4.66 0.49
Standard 8 1.47 0.7 2.23
Proctor present in both groups?
No 7 2.6 1.33 3.88 0.01
Yes 2 0.33 -0.43 1.09
Subjects
Patients 4 2.56 0.69 4.44 0.59
Volunteers 5 1.94 0.66 3.23
Setting
Real 3 0.57 -0.06 1.19 0.01
Simulated 8 2.23 1.19 3.28
Extended discussion vs. control
# of studies SMD LL UL p-value
Proctor present in control group?
No 3 1.31 0.33 2.29 0.19
Yes 1 0.63 0.33 0.93
Subjects
Patients 2 1.33 -0.07 2.74 0.53
Volunteers 2 0.83 0.19 1.47
Setting
Real 1 2.06 1.61 2.52 0.01
Simulated 3 0.66 0.39 0.93

Abbreviations: SMD Standard mean deviation, LL Lower limit, UL Upper limit.

Nishimura et al.

Nishimura et al. BMC Medical Ethics 2013 14:28   doi:10.1186/1472-6939-14-28

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