|Results of trials of mixed and miscellaneous intervensions|
|Standard control||Sample size||Understanding scores, %|
|Tait et al., 2010||N||Online presentation in which tables, instead of text, are used to explain risk vs benefit||Parents||Simulated||3139||49∞||45∞||NS|
|N||Online presentation in which pictographs, instead of text are used explain risk vs benefit||Parents||Simulated||3094||49∞||67∞||<.05|
|Ford et al., 2008||Y°||Standard paper document read aloud by study staff with familymember or care-giver present°||Elderly patients with Parkinson's disease||Real||136||48||52||0.012‡|
|Lavori et al., 2007||Y°||Supplementary self-assessment for study staff after each consent discussion with a participant°||Patients and healthy volunteers||Real||836||78||79||NS|
|Agre et al., 2003 (Merz et al. trial)||Y°||Supplementary educational vignettes°||Patients undergoing apheresis and healthy volunteers||Simulated||206||NA||NA||NS|
|Stiles et al., 2001||N°||Neutral facilitator present at research participant's meeting with investigator°||Patients with mental illness and healthy volunteers||Simulated||227||82||81||NS|
|Wragg et al., 2000||N||Simplified paper document and video with physician explanation. Material written to express current facts without stressing importance of the trial||Female research participants||Simulated||100||51||49||NS|
Abbreviations: NA Not Available, NS Not Significant.
Bolded rows indicate trials included in the 2004 systematic review by Flory and Emanuel.
°Human proctor available for question/answer.
‡ Understanding assessed at approximately 1 week.
∞Scores represent the percent of sample who scored >5 out of 7, which they called adequate knowledge.
Nishimura et al.
Nishimura et al. BMC Medical Ethics 2013 14:28 doi:10.1186/1472-6939-14-28