|Results of trials of video and computer multimedia interventions|
|Standard control||Sample size||Understanding scores, %|
|Karunaratne et al., 2010||Y||Interactive computer presentation replaces consent form. Graphics, video clips, links, and text styling||Patients with DM||Simulated||60||73||82||0.005|
|Kass et al., 2009 (formerly Agre et al. 2003)||N||Digital touch-screen presentation on oncology clinical research replaces brochure||Patients with cancer||Real||130||17||34||0.03‡|
|Bickmore et al., 2009||Y°||Standard consent form with explanation by interactive, computerized “agent”||Healthy volunteers||Simulated||18||39||42||NS|
|Hack et al., 2007||N°||Supplementary take-home audiotape recording of standardized study details°||Patients with cancer||Real||42||88||85||NS∞|
|N°||Supplementary take-home audiotape recording of IC consultation and second audiotape of standardized study details°||Patients with cancer||Real||47||88||87||NS∞|
|Hutchinson et al., 2007||Y°||Supplementary 10 min. video. Vignettes, visual aids, voice-over, and graphics. Patients allowed to take video home°||Patients with cancer||Real||173||NA||NA||0.011§,∞|
|Mittal et al., 2007||N°||Powerpoint slideshow on computer replaces consent form. Graphics, text styling, summaries video and embedded voice narration°||Patients with cognitive impairment or Alzheimer's disease||Simulated||35||52||60||NS|
|Wirshing et al., 2005 (formerly Agre et al. 2003)||N||Video with specific study guidelines replaces generic video on human research. Professionally acted vignettes, bulleted text, and audio narration||Patients with mental illness and healthy volunteers||Simulated||261||69||73||< 0.0001|
|Campbell et al., 2004||Y||Video replaces consent form. Voicenarration and no reading required||Parents of pediatric research participants||Simulated||120||47||50||NS|
|Y||Computer presentation replaces consent form. Video and still pictures; bulleted text with audio narration||Parents of pediatric research participants||Simulated||118||47||51||NS†|
|Agre and Rapkin, 2003||N||Computer presentation replaces consent form. Summary sections (?)||Patients with cancer and healthy volunteers||Real||209||68||66||NS|
|N||Video replaces consent form. Professionally produced with summary sections||Patients with cancer and healthy volunteers||Real||221||68||73||NS|
|Dunn et al., 2003 (includes Dunn et al., 2001)||Y°||Powerpoint slideshow replaces consent form. Altered organization, layout and summaries of text. Narrated by study staff°||Patients with mental illness and healthy volunteers||Real||99||85||91||0.014|
|Fureman et al., 1997||N°||Supplementary 26 min. video. Talkshow format with expert panel answering audience questions°||Injection drug users||Real||186||81||80||NS|
|Weston et al., 1997||N°||Supplementary, professionally filmed 10 min. video°||Pregnant women||Simulated||90||91||95||NS|
|Llewellyn- Thomas et al., 1995||Y||Standard consent form in navigable, digital format||Patients with cancer||Simulated||100||81||79||NS|
Abbreviations: NA not Available; NS Not significant; DM diabetes mellitus.
Bolded rows indicate trials include in the 2004 systematic review by Flory and Emanuel.
° Human proctor available for question/answer.
§ P-value is a based on change in pre-consent and post-consent quiz scores.
†P-value is a post hoc calculation of the total scores contrasting all combinations of formats; Understanding scores based on averages of high and low-risk protocol arms.
‡ Only relates to participant’s ability to identify purpose of the study.
∞ Understanding assessed at approximately 1 week.
Nishimura et al.
Nishimura et al. BMC Medical Ethics 2013 14:28 doi:10.1186/1472-6939-14-28