Table 1

Making thinking visible
Principle Action
1. Articulate • Make explicit the thinking required
• Reverse engineer your own thinking. Explain and describe how you think through problems and issues
2. Make concrete and visible • Identify thinking behaviours – what expert thinkers ask and say when they engage in thinking
4. Refine, chunk & sequence • Refine and group the thinking behaviours into useful heuristics – thinking routines
5. Enculturate • Make the thinking a routine part of your teaching
• Repeat and model thinking routines
• Encourage students to frequently and regularly use these routines

Delany and Golding

Delany and Golding BMC Medical Education 2014 14:20   doi:10.1186/1472-6920-14-20

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