Table 3

The definitive competence inventory as confirmed by the experts in the last Delphi round
CanMEDS role Key competence
Medical Expert * has insight in required medical knowledge with regard to a clinical problem, i.e.:
the student  ∘ applies the acquired knowledge
 ∘ applies medical decision making
* efficiently applies acquired medical skills with regard to a clinical problem
* accomplishes a health care plan:
 ∘ performs a relevant and adequate intake and anamnesis
 ∘ performs an efficient physical or other examination
 ∘ generates a differential diagnosis
 ∘ efficiently gathers, analysis, and interprets data (from anamnesis, physical examination, and technical investigations)
 ∘ generates an accurate diagnosis
 ∘ presents efficient treatment plans
* generates an accurate, multidisciplinary health care plan with specific attention for patient’s self care and follow up care
* defines symptoms of the most common and critical diseases and recognises alarm symptoms (also for differential diagnosis)
* integrates the different CanMEDS roles
Communicator * clearly and understandable reports a relevant, complete, systematic and accurate intake and anamnesis
the student * writes reports concerning patients encounters in the medical record and in referral letters to other health care providers
* can manage a patient record, and clearly and structurally provides (all) the information to other health care providers.
* verbally reports on patients encounters to other doctors and health care providers
* communicates scientific research in a clear, complete and structural way
* communicates during a patient’s encounter according to the rules of good practice
* establishes (and maintains) an empathic, trustful and ethical doctor-patient relationship and doctor-family relationship
* reflects on own communication skills and their progression
Collaborator * knows and involves the profile and competences of other health care providers
* actively takes part in team work
the student * effectively contributes to the interdisciplinary teamwork concerning patient care, education and research
* integrates following aspects with regard to team work:
 ∘ taking and giving responsibility
 ∘ delegating and organising
 ∘ giving and taking suggestions to/of other health care providers
 ∘ supporting the “chain-of-care” (increasing effective team work)
 ∘ coping with conflicts between professionals
* reflects on teamwork and on respecting the opinions of other team members
Manager * reflects on self-care and the balance between work and personal development (work/private time management)
the student * ranks information in order of importance and urgency; responsibly prioritises, and motivates priorities (professional time management)
* correctly and punctually deals with administrative and organisational tasks
* registers, classifies, and transfers patient related data in an effective (and trustful) way
* uses information technology to:
 ∘ optimise patient care and practice organisation – (patient related databases)
 ∘ stimulate “life long learning” – (medical databases)
* can work within the health care system and other care systems (welfare, justice) in Belgium
* has insights in costs of medical care and their implication for society, patients and medical doctors
* has insights in procedures for solicitations and contractual negotiations
Health advocate * reflects on: psychological, social, economical, biological, ethical, cultural, and religious aspects influencing patients’ health
the student * attends to the individual patient and the population regarding health-related aspects (primary prevention)
* deals with prevention and health promotion for the individual patient and the population (secondary prevention)
* has attention for patient safety
* efficiently accompanies patients through the health care system and reasons in support of a decision making
* prioritises the patient’s benefits
* involves and facilitates the accessibility of health care during daily practice, especially for vulnerable groups of patients
* reflects on critical incidents in doctor’s practice
Scholar * poses relevant, practical and scientific questions with regard to patient care
the student * performs searches in medical scientific databases/sources in an efficient, purposeful and rapid way
* questions the quality of consulted medical scientific databases/sources
* adequately applies scientific information in decision making in doctor’s practice
* development and follow up of a personal learning plan
 ∘ can critically reflect on daily performance in the doctor’s practice
 ∘ describes and analyses own personal learning needs
 ∘ applies an adequate learning method
 ∘ self evaluates or evaluates with peers his learning results and remediates
* assists in creating, spreading, and applying new medical knowledge and practice
* stimulates training of patients, family, students, trainees, other health care workers, population
* adapts his functioning to societal evolutions in health care
* is open-minded towards “life long learning”
Professional * utilises the highest quality of care for his patient in an integral, upright and ethical way
the student * understands the meaning of and applies:
 ∘ professional codes
 ∘ ethical codes and dilemmas (= uses an ethical frame)
 ∘ legal codes
* reflects on
 ∘ own behaviour
 ∘ own professional attitude: shows willingness to offer medical care in an optimal, ethical, and patient centred way
 ∘ attitude and behaviour of others and evaluates this for himself
 ∘ legal implications of patient care (patient rights, professional secrecy or professional confidentiality, DNR-codes, end-of-life coaching)
 ∘ professional, ethical and legal codes
* has an appropriate professional attitude and behaviour, demonstrating
 ∘ honesty
 ∘ integrity
 ∘ engagement
 ∘ respect
 ∘ understanding, empathy
 ∘ altruism
and remediates (himself) when needed
* recognises his own limits, weaknesses or lacunas and can cope with these

Michels et al.

Michels et al. BMC Medical Education 2012 12:86   doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-86

Open Data