Table 1

Three prototypical approaches to learning
Approach Motive Strategy
Surface Extrinsic: avoid failure but don’t work too hard Focus on selected details and reproduce accurately
Deep Intrinsic: satisfy curiosity about topic Maximize understanding: read widely, discuss, reflect
Achieving Achievement: compete for highest grade Optimize organization of time and effort (study skills)

Emilia et al.

Emilia et al. BMC Medical Education 2012 12:114   doi:10.1186/1472-6920-12-114

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