AChR agonists effect on plasma cytokine induced by hepatic IR in mice. Mice were pretreated with vehicle (i.e. normal saline), DMPP (1 mg/kg), or nicotine (1 mg/kg), prior to the onset of ischemia (90 min), followed by 3, 6, and 24 h of reperfusion (IR). Nicotine or DMPP treatment was initiated 15 min prior to the onset of ischemia (90 min) and repeated at 3 and 6 h of reperfusion. "Sham" animals received the same pretreatment as the "IR" group, followed by sham operation (n = 3 mice per group). "Control" group represents mice that received no drug treatment, and no surgical operation of IR/sham protocol was performed (n = 3 mice). Peripheral blood was collected, and plasma cytokines were measured using an ELISA. Values are expressed as means ± SEM (pg/ml) of n = 5 to 8 mice per group. +P < 0.05, IR group vs. sham group. *P < 0.05, saline-treated group vs. DMPP-or nicotine treated group.
Crockett et al. BMC Clinical Pathology 2006 6:3 doi:10.1186/1472-6890-6-3