Table 2

Clinical chemistry measurements of the study participants
Marker HIV-1 uninfected HIV-1 infected P
HC, n = 15 IHUs, n = 23 ART-naive IHUs, n = 16 ART-exposed IHUs, n = 22
CK-MB, U/L 18.0 (15.0) 17.0 (12.0) 17.5 (16.3) 18.0 (26.8) 0.946
CRP, mg/L 0.7 (0.9) 6.1 (8.4)a 3.8 (14.2)a 4.0 (7.8)a 0.002
CRP > 5.0 mg/L, n (%) 1 (6.7) 14 (60.9) 7 (43.8) 9 (40.9) -
ALT, U/L 13.7 (12.7) 11.0 (5.5)a 10.7 (5.4) 15.2 (11.0) 0.023
 M > 40; F > 31, n (%) 2 (13.3) 0 (0.0) 1 (6.3) 2 (9.1) -
AST, U/L 19.5 (9.4) 21.7 (13.0) 22.4 (10.8) 24.9 (14.1) 0.341
AST/ALT 1.1 (0.7) 1.8 (1.0)a 2.1 (0.9)a 1.6 (0.8)a 0.001
AST/ALT ≥2.0, n (%) 0 (0.0) 10 (43.5) 10 (62.5) 6 (27.3) -
APRI 0.14 (0.10) 0.23 (0.20) 0.19 (0.10) 0.25 (0.20)a 0.005
APRI ≥0.5, n (%) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (6.3) 4 (18.2) -
GGT, U/L 23.0 (28.1) 27.0 (20.1) 27.5 (39.0) 41.5 (45.0) 0.504
TC, mmol/L 5.0 (1.5) 4.1 (2.0) 4.3 (1.9) 4.2 (1.6) 0.176
HDL, mmol/L 1.3 (0.5) 1.3 (0.7) 1.1 (0.7) 1.1 (0.8) 0.828
TC/HDL 3.5 (1.0) 3.3 (1.7) 3.9 (1.0) 4.0 (1.5) 0.117
ALB, g/L 48.0 (3.7) 45.3 (17.8) 41.5 (14.3) 41.1 (10.5)a 0.014
ALB <32.0 g/L, n (%) 0 (0.0) 1 (4.3) 2 (12.5) 2 (9.1) -
Total PROT, g/L 82.3 (15.9) 84.4 (22.8) 90.2 (27.7) 82.0 (27.8) 0.147
ALB/PROT 0.6 (0.1) 0.6 (0.1) 0.4 (0.2)a,b 0.5 (0.1)a,b <0.0001
GLB, g/L 35.1 (11.1) 36.6 (10.4) 51.2 (17.5)a,b 41.5 (32.9) 0.013
ALB/GLB 1.4 (0.3) 1.5 (0.4) 0.8 (0.6)a,b 1.0 (0.5)a,b <0.0001
ALB/GLB ≤1, n (%) 0 (0.0) 3 (13.0) 10 (62.5) 11 (50.0) -
Creatinine, μmol/L 80.0 (23.0) 72.0 (30.0) 75.0 (30.0) 81.0 (29.0) 0.840
Urea, mmol/L 3.5 (1.2) 2.9 (2.5) 2.8 (0.6) 3.0 (1.4) 0.135
Vitamin D, ng/ml 30.7 (8.2) 32.0 (15.0) 35.3 (23.3) 38.3 (13.3) 0.064

Data presented are medians (IQR) unless indicated. HC, healthy controls. ART, anti-retroviral treatment. HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus-1. IHUs, injection heroin users. CK-MB, phosphocreatine kinase isoenzymes. CRP, C-reactive protein. AST, aspartate aminotransferase. ALT, alanine aminotransferase. APRI, aspartate to platelet index. GGT, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase. TC, total cholesterol. HDL, high density lipoprotein cholesterol. PROT, protein. ALB, albumin. GLB, globulin. Vitamin D3, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D. Data analysis was conducted using chi-square for proportions; and Kruskal Wallis tests for continuous data. Following the Kruskal Wallis tests, post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were performed based on the Mann Whitney between-group tests (significant at P < 0.0125). aART-exposed, ART-naive or HIV uninfected IHUs vs. HC, P < 0.01. bART-exposed and ART-naive IHUs vs. HIV-1 uninfected IHUs, P < 0.01. Values in bold are statistically significant at P-values indicated.

Were et al.

Were et al. BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:32   doi:10.1186/1472-6890-14-32

Open Data