Table 1

Demographic, clinical and laboratory characteristics of the study participants
Characteristic HIV-1 uninfected HIV-1 infected P
HC, n = 15 IHUs n = 23 ART-naive IHUs, n = 16 ART-exposed IHUs, n = 22
Age, yrs. 25.6 (8.7) 29.2 (7.1) 31.2 (5.9) 33.1 (8.5)a 0.008
Female/male, (%) 40.0/60.0 39.1/60.9 50.0/50.0 63.6/36.4 0.351
Injection drugs, n (%)
 Heroin - 23 (100.0) 16 (100.0) 22 (100.0) 0.999
 Diazepam - 0 (0.0) 3 (18.8) 2 (9.1) -
Duration of injection, n (%)
 <1 yr. - 12 (52.2) 2 (12.5) 4 (18.2) -
 1-3 yrs. - 7 (30.4) 9 (56.2) 5 (22.7)
 >3 yrs. - 4 (17.4) 5 (31.3) 13 (59.1)
Non-injection drugs, n (%)
 Bhang - 8 (34.8) 7 (43.8) 11 (50.0) 0.584
 Brown sugar - 3 (13.1) 2 (12.5) 5 (22.7) -
 Rohypnol - 12 (52.2) 9 (56.2) 16 (72.7) 0.338
 Cigarettes - 18 (78.3) 12 (75.0) 17 (77.3) 0.972
 Khat - 5 (21.7) 3 (18.8) 8 (36.4) -
 Cocktail - 5 (21.7) 6 (37.5) 9 (40.9) 0.351
 Alcohol - 8 (34.8) 9 (56.2) 15 (68.2) 0.076
CD4+ T cell count/μl 755 (463) 986 (474) 448 (337)a,b 301 (426)a,b <0.0001
Viral loads, copies/μl - - 13,470 (81,176) 150 (17,761) 0.163
Hepatitis B - 1 (4.3) 2 (12.5) 1 (4.5) -
Hepatitis C - 1 (4.3) 3 (18.8) 5 (22.7) -

Data shown are medians (IQR) unless indicated. HC, healthy controls. ART, anti-retroviral treatment. HIV-1, human immunodeficiency virus-1. IHUs, injection heroin users. Brown sugar, crude heroin. Cocktail, cigarette and bhang mixture. Data analysis was conducted using chi-square for proportions; and Kruskal Wallis tests for continuous data. Following the Kruskal Wallis tests, post-hoc Bonferroni corrections for multiple comparisons were performed based on the Mann Whitney between-group tests (significant at P < 0.0125). aART-exposed and ART-naive IHUs vs. HC, P < 0.01. bART-exposed and ART-naive IHUs vs. HIV-1 uninfected IHUs, P < 0.0001. Values in bold are statistically significant at P-values indicated.

Were et al.

Were et al. BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:32   doi:10.1186/1472-6890-14-32

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