Open Access Research article

Thymidine phosphorylase expression is associated with time to progression in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer

Elinor Bexe Lindskog*, Kristoffer Derwinger, Bengt Gustavsson, Peter Falk and Yvonne Wettergren

Author Affiliations

Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg 416 85, Sweden

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BMC Clinical Pathology 2014, 14:25  doi:10.1186/1472-6890-14-25

Published: 10 June 2014

Abstract

Background

5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the cornerstone of chemotherapeutic treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. The enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the conversion of 5-FU to its active metabolite, 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine. TP is expressed in tumour epithelial cells and stromal cells, particularly in tumour-associated macrophages. These macrophages may affect sensitivity to chemotherapy. Previously, we identified TP as a predictive factor in microdissected tumour samples of patients with advanced colorectal cancer. In the present study, we analysed TP expression in tissues and associated stromal cells from patients with advanced colorectal cancer and associated TP levels to tumour response and time-to-event variables during first-line chemotherapy treatment. We also investigated the association between serum TP levels at the time of surgery and gene expression in primary tumour tissues.

Methods

This study included 125 patients with metastatic colorectal cancer treated with first-line 5-FU-based chemotherapy. To quantify TP gene expression levels in tumour tissues, real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed using the 7500 Fast Real-Time PCR system (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA). TP protein concentration in matched serum samples was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay system (USCN Life Science Inc.).

Results

The tumour response rate was 31%, and 30% of patients exhibited stable disease. No associations between TP expression level and age or gender were observed. Levels of TP mRNA in mucosa and tumours were positively correlated (r = 0.41, p < 0.01). No correlation between TP expression and tumour response rate was observed. Time to progression was significantly longer in patients with high TP expression (p < 0.01). Serum TP protein levels were not associated with tumour response or time-to-event variables and did not correlate with gene expression in tumour tissues.

Conclusions

High TP gene expression in non-microdissected tumour tissues of patients with advanced colorectal cancer correlates with longer time to progression, which could be related to treatment. These results are in contrast to previous studies where microdissected tumour cells were analysed and may be due to the presence of adjacent stromal cells. Serum TP protein expression does not correlate to TP gene expression in tissues of patients with advanced colorectal cancer.

Keywords:
Colorectal neoplasms; PD-ECGF; Chemotherapy; Serum; Biological markers