Table 1

Plant extracts used in this study and some of their common chemical constituents

PLANT

BOTANICAL NAME

PLANT FAMILY

PART USED

KEY CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS


Alfalfa

Medicago sativa L.

Fabaceae

Leaf and stem

Organic acids, non-protein amino acids (canavanine), stachydrine, coumarins (medicagol), isoflavonoids (coumestrol), saponins (hederagenin) and steroids (B-sitosterol) [19].


Angelica

Angelica archangelica L.

Apiaceae

Root

Furanocoumarins (including xanthotoxin, angelicin, archangelin and osthol in roots) [19,20].


Anise

Illicium verum Hook. F.

Illiaceae

Fruit

Essential oil (up to 8% dry weight) consisting of trans-anethole, anisaldehyde, methylchavicol and other monoterpenoids [19].


Bladderwrack

Fucus vesiculosus L.

Fucaceae

Thallus

Alginic acid, alginates, polysaccharides and iodine [20].


Borage

Borago officinalis L.

Boraginaceae

Leaf, flowers and stem

Mucilages, trace amounts of pyrrolizidine alkaloids including amabiline and supinidine [19,20].


Buchu

Agathosma betulina (Berg) Pill.

Rutaceae

Leaf

Essential oils, mucilages, resins and flavonoids (mainly diosmin) [19].


Burdock

Arctium lappa L.

Asteraceae

Root

Sulfur containing Polyacetylenes in roots (including artinal and lappaphens) [19,20].


Celery

Apium graveolensL.

Apiaceae

Fruit

Essential oils, flavonoids, phenolic acids, coumarins and furanocoumarins [20].


Chamomile

Matricaria recutita L.

Asteraceae

Leaf, flowers and stem

Flavonoids (Apigenin, luteolin, patuletin-7-glycosides), coumarins (umbelliferone and herniarin) [19].


Chickweed

Stellaria media (L.) Vill.

Caryophyllaceae

Leaf and stem

Triterpene saponins, coumarins, phytosterols, flavonoids (apigenin, rutin), organic acids and vitamin C [19].


Cleavers

Galium aparine L.

Rubiaceae

Leaf and stem

Tannins, phenolic acids, flavonoids and iridoid glycosides [19].


Comfrey

Symphytum spp

Boraginaceae

Leaves and stem

Allantoin, mucilage, and rosmarinic acid [19].


Gotu kola

Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

Apiaceae

Leaf and stem

Triterpenes (Asiatic acid and madecassic acid) and triterpenoid ester glycosides (asiaticoside and brahminoside). Also contains volatile oil [19,20].


Lavender

Lavandula angustifolia L.

Lamiaceae

Leaves and flowers

Essential oil monoterpenoids (including linaloyl-acetate, linalool, 1-terpinen-4-ol), leaves contain rosmarinic acid, tannins, coumarins, triterpenes and phenolic acids [19].


Mahonia

Mahonia aquifolium Nutt.

Berberidaceae

Fruit tincture

Roots and unripe berries contain the alkaloid berberine [19].


Milk thistle

Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.

Asteraceae

Fruit

Lipids, flavolignans (silymarin), benzodioxane (silybinin), isosilybinin, silychristin and silydianin [19].


Orange

Citrus aurantium subsp. amara

Rutaceae

Flowers

Peel contains essential oils, bitter flavonone glycosides and bitter triterpenes. Neroli oil is distilled from petals [19]. Flowers contain flavonoids (naringen and neoeriocitrin) [20].


Pomegranate

Punica granatum L.

Lythraceae

Glycerin fruit preparation

Fruit rind has gallotannins and ellagitannins (punicalin and punicalagen). Alkaloids present in roots, leaves, bark and young fruit but not rind [19].


Rose

Rosa centifolia L.

Rosaceae

Flowers (both aqueous and tincture)

Petals contain tannins, rosehips contain ascorbic acid, carotenoids, pectins, flavonoids, tannins, organic acids and sugars [19].


Tea

Camellia sinensis Kuntze

Theaceae

Leaf extracts of green tea (in glycerine) and white tea (lyophilized powder)

Flavan-3-ols (catechins) up to 30% dry weight, quercetin, kaempferol, other acids: gallic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acids [22].


Witch hazel

Hamamelis virginiana L.

Hamamelida-ceae

Leaf

Leaves and bark both contain tannins (bark has catechols and hamamelitannins while leaves contain proanthocyanidins, ellagitannins and essential oils) [19].


Extracts indicate being diluted to 6.25 μg* and 1 μg** in TEAC assay

Thring et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2009 9:27   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-9-27

Open Data