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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Dose-dependent inhibition of gastric injury by hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water

Jinling Xue1, Guodong Shang1, Yoshinori Tanaka3, Yasuhiro Saihara3, Lingyan Hou1, Natalia Velasquez1, Wenjun Liu12 and Yun Lu12*

Author Affiliations

1 State Key Joint Laboratory of Environmental Simulation and Pollution Control, School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China

2 State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Microorganism Application and Risk Control, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China

3 Panasonic Corporation, Appliances Company, 2-3-1-2 Noji-Higashi, Kusatsu-city, Shiga 525-8502, Japan

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:81  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-81

Published: 3 March 2014



Hydrogen has been reported to relieve damage in many disease models, and is a potential additive in drinking water to provide protective effects for patients as several clinical studies revealed. However, the absence of a dose–response relationship in the application of hydrogen is puzzling. We attempted to identify the dose–response relationship of hydrogen in alkaline electrolyzed drinking water through the aspirin induced gastric injury model.


In this study, hydrogen-rich alkaline water was obtained by adding H2 to electrolyzed water at one atmosphere pressure. After 2 weeks of drinking, we detected the gastric mucosal damage together with MPO, MDA and 8-OHdG in rat aspirin induced gastric injury model.


Hydrogen-dose dependent inhibition was observed in stomach mucosal. Under pH 8.5, 0.07, 0.22 and 0.84 ppm hydrogen exhibited a high correlation with inhibitory effects showed by erosion area, MPO activity and MDA content in the stomach. Gastric histology also demonstrated the inhibition of damage by hydrogen-rich alkaline water. However, 8-OHdG level in serum did not have significant hydrogen-dose dependent effect. pH 9.5 showed higher but not significant inhibitory response compared with pH 8.5.


Hydrogen is effective in relieving the gastric injury induced by aspirin-HCl, and the inhibitory effect is dose-dependent. The reason behind this may be that hydrogen-rich water directly interacted with the target tissue, while the hydrogen concentration in blood was buffered by liver glycogen, evoking a suppressed dose–response effect. Drinking hydrogen-rich water may protect healthy individuals from gastric damage caused by oxidative stress.

Alkaline electrolyzed water; Dose–response; Gastric injury; Hydrogen; Oxidative stress