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Open Access Research article

In vivo anti-ulcer, anti-stress, anti-allergic, and functional properties of Gymnemic Acid Isolated from Gymnema sylvestre R Br

Lilly Baptista Arun1, Aarrthy M Arunachalam2, Kantha Deivi Arunachalam1*, Sathesh Kumar Annamalai1 and Kalaivani Amit Kumar3

Author Affiliations

1 Center for Environmental Nuclear Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 603203, India

2 Kaplan University (Medical), Washington DC 20036, USA

3 SRM Medical College Hospitals and Research Centre, SRM University, Kattankulathur, Chennai, Tamil Nadu 603203, India

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:70  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-70

Published: 22 February 2014

Abstract

Background

Gymnema sylvestre is a highly valued ethno pharmacologically important medicinal plant used currently in many poly-herbal formulations due to its potential antidiabetic activity and other health benefits. The present study was carried out to analyze the anti-stress, anti-allergic, and antiulcer activity of the bioactive compounds present in Gymnema sylvestre leaves.

Methods

The preliminary phytochemical screening for bioactive compounds from aqueous extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, triterpenes, flavonoids, steroids, and saponins. The antioxidant activities were investigated using DPPH radical scavenging method. The characterization of the extract was carried out using standard compound by High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography (HPTLC) and phytochemical analysis in terms of total phenol, total flavonoids, reducing power and antioxidant potentials, etc. The in vivo studies on albino mice proved the purified fraction has anti-stress/anti-allergic activity against milk induced leucocytosis/eosinophilia and able to inhibit the aspirin induced gastric ulcers.

Results

The quantitative estimation for aqueous extract exhibited total antioxidant (9.13 ± 0.04 μg/g), flavonoids (125.62 ± 26.84 μg/g), tannin (111.53 ± 15.13 μg/g), total phenol content (285.23 ± 1.11 μg/g) and free radical scavenging (52.14 ± 0.32%). Further the aqueous extract was consecutively purified by TLC and silica column chromatography. The purified fractions were characterized by HPTLC and GC-MS and the component was identified as gymnemic acid. The potency of the antimicrobial activity of the extract was studied with bacteria. Pharmacological experiments clearly demonstrated that the extracts of all plants given orally showed significant gastric protection against the asprin-induced gastric ulcer model in mice. Furthermore, healing effects were also confirmed through histopathological examination.

Conclusions

The aqueous extracts of the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre possess anti ulcerogenic, Anti allergic, Anti stress, properties that may be due to cytoprotective mechanism. These results support the ethno medical uses of the plant in the treatment of gastric ulcer.

Keywords:
Gymnema sylvestre; Gymnemic acid; Anti- stress; Anti-ulcer; Anti- allergic; Antioxidant activities; Leaf extract