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Open Access Research article

Effects of Carissa opaca fruits extracts on oxidative pulmonary damages and fibrosis in rats

Sumaira Sahreen12*, Muhammad Rashid Khan2 and Rahmat Ali Khan23*

Author Affiliations

1 Botanical Sciences Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, Islamabad, Pakistan

2 Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK, Pakistan

3 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK 28100, Pakistan

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:40  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-40

Published: 30 January 2014

Abstract

Background

Carissa opaca is a Pakistani fruit, traditionally used in the treatment of various human ailments including asthma and pulmonary damage. The present study investigated the protective effects of Carissa opaca against CCl4-induced oxidative stress in rat lungs.

Methods

To assess the protective effects of Carissa opaca, 42 Sprague–Dawley male rats (170–180 g) were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group I was untreated and group II received olive oil intraperitoneally (i.p.) and dimethyl sulfoxide orally. Groups III, IV, V, VI and VII were administered CCl4, 3 ml/kg bodyweight (30% in olive oil i.p.). Group IV was administered 50 mg/kg bodyweight silymarin whereas groups V, VI and VII were treated with 200 mg/kg of various fractions of Carissa opaca after 48 h of CCl4 treatment for eight weeks. Antioxidant profiles in lungs were evaluated by estimating the activities of antioxidant enzymes: catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, quinone reductase and reduced glutathione. CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation was determined by measuring the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) with conjugation of DNA damage and histopathology.

Results

Administration of CCl4 for 8 weeks significantly reduced (p < 0.05) the activities of antioxidant enzymes and GSH concentration while increasing TBARS content and DNA damage. Co-treatment of various fractions of Carissa opaca and silymarin restored the activities of antioxidant enzymes and glutathione content. Changes in TBARS concentration and DNA fragmentation was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) following Carissa opaca and silymarin treatment in lung.

Conclusions

Histopathological changes in rat lungs induced by CCl4 were significantly restored by co-treatment with Carissa opaca and silymarin.

Keywords:
Carissa opaca; Lungs; CCl4; Antioxidant enzymes; TBARS; DNA