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Open Access Research article

Chebulagic acid from Terminalia chebula causes G1 arrest, inhibits NFκB and induces apoptosis in retinoblastoma cells

Naresh Kumar, Gangappa D, Geetika Gupta and Roy Karnati*

Author Affiliations

School of Life Sciences, University of Hyderabad, Gachibowli, Hyderabad 500046, India

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:319  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-319

Published: 29 August 2014

Abstract

Background

Plants are the valuable source of natural products with important medicinal properties. Most of the approved anti cancer drugs have a natural product origin or are natural products. Retinoblastoma is the most common ocular cancer of children. Although chemotherapy is the preferred mode of therapy, a successful treatment for retinoblastoma requires enucleation. Chebulagic acid (CA) from Terminalia chebula was shown to have anti-proliferative properties in the studies on cancerous cell lines. Due to anti cancer properties of CA and due to limitation in treatment options for retinoblastoma, the present study is undertaken to understand the role of CA on the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells.

Methods

Anti proliferative potential of CA was determined by MTT assay. The expression levels of various cell death mediators in retinoblastoma cells with CA treatment were assessed by Western blotting. Flowcytometer analysis was used to estimate the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and to determine the percentage of cells undergoing apoptosis.

Results

The present study showed CA inhibited the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells in a dose dependent manner. CA modulated MMP, induced release of Cytochrome c, activated caspase 3 and shifted the ratio of BAX and Bcl2 towards cell death. G1 arrest, noticed in CA treated cells, is mediated by the increase in the expression of CDK inhibitor p27. CA treatment also decreased the levels of NFκB in the nucleus. This decrease is mediated by suppression in degradation of IκBα.

Conclusion

CA has shown significant anti proliferative potential on retinoblastoma cells. Our findings clearly demonstrate that CA induces G1 arrest, inhibits NFκB and induces apoptosis of retinoblastoma cells.

Keywords:
Chebulagic acid; Retinoblastoma; Apoptosis