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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Mozart K.448 listening decreased seizure recurrence and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures: a randomized controlled study

Lung-Chang Lin12, Mei-Wen Lee3, Ruey-Chang Wei4, Hin-Kiu Mok5 and Rei-Cheng Yang26*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan

2 Department of Pediatrics, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, #100, Tzu-you 1st Road, Kaohsiung City 80708, Taiwan

3 Department of Music, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City 804, Taiwan

4 Institute of Applied Physics and Underseas Technology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City 804, Taiwan

5 Institute of Marine Biology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung City 804, Taiwan

6 Department of Pediatrics, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014, 14:17  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-17

Published: 13 January 2014



Increasing numbers of reports show the beneficial effects of listening to Mozart music in decreasing epileptiform discharges as well as seizure frequency in epileptic children. There has been no effective method to reduce seizure recurrence after the first unprovoked seizure until now. In this study, we investigated the effect of listening to Mozart K.448 in reducing the seizure recurrence rate in children with first unprovoked seizures.


Forty-eight children who experienced their first unprovoked seizure with epileptiform discharges were included in the study. They were randomly placed into treatment (n = 24) and control (n = 24) groups. Children in the treatment group listened to Mozart K.448 daily before bedtime for at least six months. Two patients in the treatment group were excluded from analysis due to discontinuation intervention. Finally, forty-six patients were analyzed. Most of these patients (89.1%) were idiopathic in etiology. Seizure recurrence rates and reduction of epileptiform discharges were compared.


The average follow-up durations in the treatment and control groups were 18.6 ± 6.6 and 20.1 ± 5.1 months, respectively. The seizure recurrence rate was estimated to be significantly lower in the treatment group than the control group over 24 months (37.2% vs. 76.8%, p = 0.0109). Significant decreases in epileptiform discharges were also observed after 1, 2, and 6 months of listening to Mozart K.448 when compared with EEGs before listening to music. There were no significant differences in gender, mentality, seizure type, and etiology between the recurrence and non-recurrence groups.


Although the case number was limited and control music was not performed in this study, the study revealed that listening to Mozart K.448 reduced the seizure recurrence rate and epileptiform discharges in children with first unprovoked seizures, especially of idiopathic etiology. We believe that Mozart K.448 could be a promising alternative treatment in patients with first unprovoked seizures and abnormal EEGs. Further large-scaled study should be conducted to confirm the effect.

Trial registration

NCT01892605, date: June-19-2013

Mozart K.448; First unprovoked seizure; Epileptiform discharges; Music therapy; Children