Table 3

Effects of yoga intervention on OA related symptoms at different time points (N = 36)
Time 1 (T1) 4 weeks Time 2 (T2) 8 weeks Time 3 (T3) 20 weeks p-value1 T1 vs. T2 p-value1 T1 vs. T3 p-value1 T2 vs. T3
WOMAC
Pain 7.0 (.49) 5.9 (.50) 5.4 (.50) .04 .01 .38
Stiffness 3.8 (.22) 3.6 (.22) 3.4 (.22) .47 .14 .31
Function 24.4 (1.6) 21.4 (1.7) 19.8 (1.7) .06 .008 .31
Total 35.3 (2.1) 30.9 (2.2) 28.5 (2.2) .046 .007 .27
Use pain meds .64 (.13) .76 (.13) .79 (.13) .47 .35 .86
SPPB
Repeated chair stands 2.5 (.19) 2.8 (.19) 2.8 (.19) .08 .16 .98
Balance 3.7 (.09) 3.9 (.09) 3.7 (.09) .13 .78 .20
Walk 3.4 (.11) 3.6 (.11) 3.4 (.11) .03 .58 .11
Global 9.6 (.29) 10.2 (.29) 9.9 (.29) .007 .34 .10
PSQI
PSQI total 5.5 (.31) 5.1 (.32) 6.8 (.32) .28 <.001 <.001
Sleep quality .87 (.10) .70 (.10) .73 (.10) .08 .12 .77
Sleep efficiency .54 (.13) .39 (.13) .42 (.13) .20 .33 .81
Sleep disturbance 1.6 (.08) 1.4 (.09) 1.3 (.09) .11 .01 .53
Sleep latency .92 (.11) .88 (.11) .88 (.11) .73 .74 .99
Sleep duration .41 (.08) .23 (.09) .35 (.08) .15 .33 .34
SF-12
PCS 37.4 (.77) 37.4 (.78) 37.7 (.78) .94 .75 .70
MCS 50.0 (.82) 51.2 (.83) 50.5 (.84) .23 .63 .52
Cantril Ladder
Current 6.9 (.24) 7.4 (.24) 7.3 (.24) .045 .19 .58
In 5 years 7.3 (.21) 7.3 (.21) 7.2 (.21) .92 .61 .52

Adjusted Means (SE).

1Repeated measures ANOVA with overall alpha controlled by use of Tukeys LSD for multiple comparisons. WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index; SPPB = Short Physical Performance Battery; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; SF-12 = Health related Short Form 12; PCS = physical component summary; MCS = mental component summary; Cantril Ladder (quality of life scale).

Cheung et al.

Cheung et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:160   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-160

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