Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the study participants
Yoga Wait list control
Variable Mean (95% CI) Mean (95% CI) p-value
Demographics
  Age, years 71.9 (69.3, 74.6) 71.9 (69.0, 75.0) 1.0
  BMI 29.1 (26.7, 31.7) 28.8 (26.0, 31.7) .80
  Education, years 15.7 (14.1, 16.3) 17.0 (16.1, 18.0) .01
Disease condition (range of scores)
  WOMAC-pain (0–20) 9.3 (7.4, 11.3) 7.7 (5.6, 9.8) .25
  WOMAC-stiffness (0–8) 5.2 (4.5, 5.9) 4.3 (3.3, 5.3) .16
  WOMAC- physical function (0–68) 35.0 (29.2, 40.9) 27.1 (19.6, 34.6) .09
  WOMAC-total (0– 96) 49.5 (41.6, 57.4) 39.2 (29.7, 48.7) .09
  SPPB Global (0–12) 9.2 (8.1, 10.3) 8.8 (7.6, 10.0) .57
  SPPB-chair (0–4) 2.4 (1.7, 3.1) 1.9 (1.2, 2.7) .36
  SPPB-balance (0–4) 3.6 (3.1, 4.0) 3.7 (3.3, 4.1) .59
  SPPB-walk (0–4) 3.3 (3.0, 3.6) 3.1 (2.7, 3.5) .49
  Comorbidities, no. 2.8 (1.7, 3.9) 1.4 (.8, 2.0) .03
QOS and QOL (range of scores)
  PSQI Total (0–21) 6.5 (4.4, 8.6) 5.7 (3.9, 7.4) .52
  PSQI-sleep efficiency (0–3) .61 (.1, 1.2) .61 (.15, 1.2) 1.0
  PSQI-sleep disturbance (0–3) 1.7 (1.5, 2.0) 1.5 (1.2, 1.8) .18
  PSQI-sleep duration (0–3) .44 (.1, .8) .33 (.05,.51) .65
  PSQI-sleep latency (0–3) 1.2 (.7, 1.7) .76 (.6, 1.5) .23
  PSQI-sleep quality (0–3) 1.1 (.7, 1.4) .83 (.4, 1.4) .38
  PSQI-Use sleep medications (0–3) .67 (.1, 1.3) .78 (.2, 1.4) .78
  SF-12 PCS (0–100) 39.5 (36.4, 42.6) 37.8 (35.3, 40.3) .37
  SF-12 MCS (0–100) 51.0 (48.2, 53.8) 51.7 (48.8, 54.6) .72
  Cantril Current (0–10) 6.9 (6.0, 7.8) 7.8 (7.1, 8.5) .11
  Cantril 5 years (0–10) 7.3 (6.5, 8.1) 7.8 (7.0, 8.5) .41

n = 18 per group. WOMAC = Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (lower scores = better state); SPPB = Short Physical Performance Battery (higher scores = better state); QOS = quality of sleep; QOL = quality of life; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (lower scores = better state); SF-12 = Health related Short Form 12 (higher scores = better state); PCS = physical component summary; MCS = mental component summary; Cantril current and 5 years (higher scores = better state); P values ≤ .05.

Cheung et al.

Cheung et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2014 14:160   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-14-160

Open Data