Germinated brown rice and its bioactives modulate the activity of uterine cells in oophorectomised rats as evidenced by gross cytohistological and immunohistochemical changes
1 Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetic, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
3 Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
4 Department of Veterinary Pathology, and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
5 Department of pre-clinical studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor 43400 UPM, Malaysia
6 Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Usmanu Danfodiyo University, Sokoto state PMB 2346, Nigeria
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:198 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-198Published: 30 July 2013
Germinated brown rice (GBR) is gaining momentum in the area of biomedical research due to its increased use as a nutraceutical for the management of diseases. The effect of GBR on the reproductive organs of oophorectomised rats was studied using the gross, cytological, histological and immunohistochemical changes, with the aim of reducing atrophy and dryness of the genital organs in menopause.
Experimental rats were divided into eight groups of six rats per group. Groups 1, 2 and 3 (sham-operated (SH), oophorectomised without treatment (OVX) and oophorectomised treated with 0.2 mg/kg oestrogen, respectively) served as the controls. The groups 4,5,6,7 and 8 were treated with 20 mg/kg Remifemin, 200 mg/kg of GBR, ASG, oryzanol and GABA, respectively. All treatments were administered orally, once daily for 8 weeks. Vaginal smear cytology was done at the 7th week on all the rats. The weight and dimensions of the uterus and vagina were determined after sacrifice of the rats. Uterine and vaginal tissues were taken for histology and Immunohistochemical examinations.
GBR and its bioactives treated groups significantly increased the weight and length of both the uterus and the vagina when compared to Oophorectomised non-treated group (OVX-non-treated) (p < 0.05). Significant changes were observed in the ratio of cornified epithelial cells and number of leucocytes in the vaginal cytology between the oophorectomised non-treated and treated groups. There was also an increase in the luminal and glandular epithelial cells activity in the treated compared with the untreated groups histologically. Immunohistochemical staining showed specific proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the treated groups, which was absent in the OVX-non-treated group. GBR improved the length and weight of the uterus and also increased the number of glandular and luminal cells epithelia of the vagina.
GBR and its bioactives could be a potential alternative in improving reproductive system atrophy, dryness and discomfort during menopause.