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Open Access Research article

Syzygium campanulatum korth methanolic extract inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth in nude mice

Abdalrahim FA Aisha12*, Zhari Ismail1, Khalid M Abu-Salah3, Jamshed M Siddiqui4, Gheniya Ghafar1 and Amin Malik Shah Abdul Majid25*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

2 Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Minden 11800, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia

3 King Abdulla Institute for Nanotechnology, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia

4 Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang, Malaysia

5 Australian Institute for Nanotechnology and Bioengineering, University of Queensland, Queensland 4072, Australia

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2013, 13:168  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-13-168

Published: 11 July 2013

Abstract

Background

Syzygium campanulatum Korth (Myrtaceae) is an evergreen shrub rich in phenolics, flavonoid antioxidants, and betulinic acid. This study sought to investigate antiangiogenic and anti-colon cancer effects of S.C. standardized methanolic extract.

Methods

Betulinic acid was isolated from methanolic extract by crystallization and chromatography techniques. S.C. methanolic extract was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, LC-MS, and HPLC. Antiangiogenic effect was studied on rat aortic rings, matrigel tube formation, cell proliferation and migration, and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Antitumor effect was studied using a subcutaneous tumor model of HCT 116 colorectal carcinoma cells established in nude mice.

Results

Analysis by HPLC, LC-MS and FTIR confirm presence of betulinic acid in S.C. methanolic extract. Quantitative analysis by HPLC indicates presence of betulinic acid in S.C. extract at 5.42 ± 0.09% (w/w). Antiangiogenesis study showed potent inhibition of microvessels outgrowth in rat aortic rings, and studies on normal and cancer cells did not show any significant cytotoxic effect. Antiangiogenic effect was further confirmed by inhibition of tube formation on matrigel matrix that involves human endothelial cells (IC50 = 17.6 ± 2.9 μg/ml). S.C. extract also inhibited migration of endothelial cells and suppressed expression of VEGF. In vivo antiangiogenic study showed inhibition of new blood vessels in chicken embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM), and in vivo antitumor study showed significant inhibition of tumor growth due to reduction of intratumor blood vessels and induction of cell death.

Conclusion

Collectively, our results indicate S. campanulatum as antiangiogenic and antitumor candidate, and a new source of betulinic acid.