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Open Access Open Badges Research article

Protective effects of rutin against potassium bromate induced nephrotoxicity in rats

Rahmat Ali Khan1*, Muhamad Rashid Khan2 and Sumaira Sahreen3

Author affiliations

1 Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Science and Technology Bannu, Khyber Pakutunkhwa, Pakistan

2 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad, Pakistan

3 Botanical Sciences Division, Pakistan Museum of Natural History, Garden Avenue, Shakarparian, Islamabad, Pakistan

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Citation and License

BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:204  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-204

Published: 1 November 2012



Rutin, a polyphenolic flavonoid, was investigated for its protective effects against the KBrO3 induced renal injuries in rat.


Group I was control (untreated), group II was given saline 0.5 ml/kg bw (0.9% NaCl), group III was administered KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) intragastric twice a week for four weeks. Rutin was administered to group VI (50 mg/kg bw) and Group V (70 mg/kg bw) along with KBrO3 (20 mg/kg bw) while group VI was given rutin (70 mg/kg bw) alone twice a week for four weeks. Protective effects of rutin on KBrO3-induced nephrotoxicity in rats were determined for biochemical parameter of urine, and serum, various antioxidant enzymes, DNA and histopathological damages in kidneys.


The level of urinary red blood cells, leucocytes count, specific gravity, urea, creatinine and urobilinogen was increased (P<0.01) whereas creatinine clearance was reduced. Serum level of protein, albumin, globulin, nitrite, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) was significantly increased (P<0.01) by KBrO3. Marked histopathological lesions, elevated DNA fragmentation and AgNORs count in renal tissues was determined. Activity of antioxidant enzymes; catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione contents were decreased (P<0.01) while thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were increased (P<0.01) with KBrO3 treatment in kidneys. DNA ladder assay was intimately related with the DNA fragmentation assay. Telomerase activity was found positive in the KBrO3 treated kidneys. Treatment with rutin effectively ameliorated the alterations in the studied parameters of rat. Rutin administration alone to rats did not exhibit any significant change in any of the parameters studied.


These results suggest that rutin works as an antioxidant in vivo by scavenging reactive oxygen species and this serves to prevent oxidative renal damage in rat treated with KBrO3.

Potassium bromate; Rutin; Histopathology; Renal function test; Antioxidant; DNA fragmentation; Telomerase