Table 2

Characteristics of adults who used complementary medicine (CM)* to treat their type-2 diabetes
Did not use CM to treat/manage their diabetes Used CM to treat/manage their diabetes
N Percent S.E.§ N Percent S.E.§
All adults with type-2 diabetes 3873 96.57 0.37 141 3.43 0.37
N Percent|| S.E. § N Percent|| S.E. § P-value
Count of diabetes severity measures#
0-2 measures 2738 76.82 0.85 97 72.25 4.29 0.284
>=3 measures 904 23.18 0.85 41 27.75 4.29
Diabetes duration
1-< 5 years 1348 37.2 0.96 45 38.29 5.35 0.067
5-<10 years 835 23.28 0.98 21 15.11 3.58
>= 10 years 1536 39.52 1.02 74 46.6 5.33
Diabetes medication use
None 554 15.83 0.77 26 23.08 4.9 0.16
Any 3273 84.17 0.77 114 76.92 4.9
Functional limitation
No 3105 83.34 0.7 104 77.34 3.7 0.104
Yes 684 16.66 0.7 37 22.66 3.7
Weak/failing kidneys
No 3561 93.28 0.49 129 92.38 2.76 0.741
Yes 268 6.72 0.49 11 7.62 2.76
Coronary heart disease
No 3359 87.95 0.66 130 92.97 2.27 0.044
Yes 447 12.05 0.66 11 7.03 2.27
Severe vision problems
No 2921 78.91 0.8 105 77.21 4.29 0.706
Yes 874 21.09 0.8 36 22.71 4.29
Anxiety or depression
No 2800 73.62 0.89 100 72.59 4.82 0.823
Yes 1027 26.38 0.89 41 27.41 4.82
Gender
Male 1725 49.83 1.04 63 46.95 4.79 0.56
Female 2112 50.17 1.04 78 53.05 4.79
Age group
Age 18-44 yrs 451 12.54 0.71 22 16.65 4.02 0.04
Age 45-64 yrs 1653 46.71 0.99 73 55.11 4.97
Age 65+ yrs 1733 40.75 0.91 46 28.24 4.34
Education
Less than high school 1190 27.38 0.89 38 23.4 4.17 0.355
At least high school 2594 72.62 0.89 101 76.6 4.17
Income
$0-$34,999 2334 50.57 1.11 81 44.41 5.37 0.337
$35,000-$74,999 1035 32.05 1.15 40 29.08 5.03
$75,000 + 468 17.38 0.99 20 26.51 5.8
Race/ethnicity
NH White 2183 65.46 0.99 72 59.5 5.46 0.059
NH Black 802 15.9 0.68 20 9.93 2.7
Hispanic 650 12.25 0.64 37 19.09 3.42
Other races 202 6.39 0.59 12 11.48 4.32
Region of residence
Northeast 648 16.27 0.78 13 10.09 3.28 0.01
Midwest 846 23.6 1.05 22 16.44 3.9
South 1565 40.75 1.11 52 33.89 4.95
West 778 19.38 0.9 54 39.58 5.47
Health insurance
Public insurance 1390 30.43 0.91 39 22.57 4.02 0.135
Private insurance 2096 60.09 1.02 76 63.55 4.91
No insurance 342 9.47 0.63 24 13.88 3.46
Other health conditions**
0-2 2694 70.54 0.93 80 57.84 5.41 0.017
3 or more 1143 29.46 0.93 61 42.16 5.41
BMI level
BMI 0 - < 25 673 16.3 0.68 14 7.65 2.25 0.002
BMI 25 - < 30 1210 32.08 0.86 41 28.71 4.94
BMI >= 30 1954 51.62 0.98 86 63.64 5.08
Hypertension
No 1544 54.41 1 70 48 5.19 0.297
Yes 2279 57.59 1 71 52 5.19
Smoking status
Current 605 16.4 0.77 13 11.61 3.99 0.441
Former smoker 1329 35.52 0.99 53 34.51 4.69
Never smoker 1878 48.08 1 75 53.89 5.33
Alcohol use
Never/none 1202 29.19 0.94 40 23.97 3.91 0.21
Any 2604 70.81 0.94 99 76.03 3.91
Vigorous leisure activity
Unable to do or none 2784 77.82 0.95 93 67.08 5.79 0.086
Any per week 706 22.18 0.95 36 32.92 5.79
Perceived health status
Fair/poor 1715 43.74 1.02 56 30.35 4.58 0.012
Exc/VG/Good†† 2119 56.26 1.02 85 69.65 4.58

* CM use, the dependent variable for this study, was defined as use of any of the following in the past 12 months: acupuncture, Ayurveda, biofeedback, chelation therapy, chiropractic care, chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, energy healing therapy/Reiki, folk medicine, hypnosis, massage therapy, movement based therapies, naturopathy, herbal supplements and other non-vitamin/non-mineral dietary supplements (NVNMDS), homeopathic treatment, diet-based therapies, traditional healers, yoga, tai chi, qi gong, and relaxation techniques.

† The unweighted number of participants belonging to each category.

‡ The denominator used in the calculation of percentages was the number of adults with type-2 Diabetes, defined as all participants with diabetes excluding those who were both diagnosed at age <25 and were currently being treated with insulin, who were classified as having type-1 diabetes. Estimates were age adjusted using the projected 2000 U.S. population as the standard population and using four age groups: 18–24 years, 25–44 years, 45–64 years, and 65 years and over”.

§ Standard Errors.

|| For each individual characteristic, the denominator used in the calculation of percentages was the number of adults with type-2 Diabetes for whom a response was recorded for the particular characteristic. Estimates were age adjusted using the projected 2000 U.S. population as the standard population and using four age groups: 18–24 years, 25–44 years, 45–64 years, and 65 years and over”.

¶ Chi-square analyses comparing individuals with Type-2 diabetes who used CM to treat/manage their diabetes versus those not using CM to treat/manage their diabetes.

# Based on the following six measures: 5 or more years since time of diagnosis, use of insulin or oral hypoglycemic drugs, at least one functional limitation attributed to the diabetes, weak or failing kidneys, Coronary Heart Disease, and severe vision problems.

** Includes all health conditions included in the NHIS except weak or failing kidney, severe vision problems, coronary heart disease, hypertension, and anxiety or depression.

†† Excellent/Very Good/Good.

Nahin et al.

Nahin et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:193   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-193

Open Data