Dual possible pathways (stressor and/or pharmacological drug) for exogenous agents, including nanoparticles, for effects on living systems. Exogenous nanoparticles (from pollution, nanomedicine drugs, or homeopathic remedies) might serve as stressors to trigger adaptation and/or specific pharmacological agents (drugs, toxins) to activate specific receptors on local tissues, at higher dose levels. However, although the dose would sometimes be insufficient to act as a specific conventional pharmacological drug, the low levels of nanoparticles found in a homeopathic remedy could act as stressors for the organism (homeostatic disruptors). Therefore, homeopathic remedies would engage mainly the stress response network pathway, whereas conventional bulk form drugs affect both pathways (stressor and drug).
Bell and Koithan BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:191 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-191