(A) Chemical structure of 1’S-1’-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA) from Alpinia conchigera Griff. (Zingiberaceae), Malaysian isolate. (B) Comparison of total viable cell count of HSC-4 cells after treatment with ACA at different post-treatment time, indicating both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity. HMEC was used as a normal cell control. All MTT data were represented as mean ±SD of three independent experiments. (C) Live/Dead® assay on HMEC normal cell controls and HSC-4 cancer cells upon treatment with ACA (15.0 μM) and DMSO solvent controls for 3 h and 6 h. Green fluorescence denotes viable cells stained with acetomethoxy derivate of calcein, while red fluorescence represents non-viable cells stained with ethidium homodimer-1. Relative mean percentages of viable cells are shown as calculated under a fluorescence microscope from three independent experiments. A total of four random quadrants were selected from each replicate for quantification.
In et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012 12:179 doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-179