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Open Access Research article

Anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract from Myagropsis myagroides on murine macrophages and mouse ear edema

Eun-Ji Joung1, Min-Sup Lee1, Ji-Woong Choi1, Jong-Soon Kim1, Taisun Shin2, Bok-Mi Jung2, Na Young Yoon3, Chi-Won Lim3, Jae-Il Kim1 and Hyeung-Rak Kim1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Pukyong National University, Busan, 608-737, South Korea

2 Department of Food Science and Nutrition, Chonnam National University, Yeosu, 550-749, South Korea

3 Food and Safety Research Division, National Fisheries Research and Development Institute, Gijang-gun, Busan, 619-705, Korea

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BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2012, 12:171  doi:10.1186/1472-6882-12-171

Published: 3 October 2012

Abstract

Background

This study aims to investigate anti-inflammatory effect of ethanolic extract of Myagropsis myagroides (EMM) in the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages and the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced ear edema in mice, and to clarify its underlying molecular mechanisms.

Methods

The levels of nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured by Griess assay and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and Akt were measured using Western blotting. Nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were determined by immunocytochemistry and reporter gene assay, respectively. PMA-induced mouse ear edema was used as the animal model of inflammation. Anti-inflammatory compounds in EMM were isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by nuclear magnetic resonance.

Results

EMM significantly inhibited the production of NO, PGE2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. EMM strongly suppressed nuclear translocation of NF-κB by preventing degradation of inhibitor of κB-α as well as by inhibiting phosphorylation of Akt and MAPKs. EMM reduced ear edema in PMA-induced mice. One of the anti-inflammatory compounds in EMM was identified as 6,6’-bieckol.

Conclusions

These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of EMM are associated with the down-regulation of iNOS, COX-2, and pro-inflammatory cytokines through the inhibition of NF-κB pathway in LPS-stimulated macrophages.

Keywords:
Anti-inflammation; Myagropsis myagroides; MAPK; NF-κB; RAW 264.7 cells