Table 7

Synopsis of effects of RHP and GLGPG on cellular processes

Type of mediators

Effect of RHP and GLGPG


In murine macrophages

In human PBL

In chondrocytes

Possible consequences of reduced expression or production


Chemokines

(chemokine family)

MIP-1α (CC)

Not significant

Reduced by GLGPG

-a

Recruitment of monocytes, T cells, B cells and eosinophils reduced by GLGPG

MIP-1β (CC)

-a

Reduced by GLGPG

-a

Recruitment of monocytes and neutrophils reduced by GLGPG

MIP-3α (CC)

-a

Reduced

Reduced

Recruitment of T lymphocytes reduced

CCL5/RANTES (CC)

Not significant

Reduced

Reduced

Recruitment of leukocytes diminished

MIP-2 (CXC)

-a

Not significant

Reduced by RHP

Recruitment of neutrophils diminished by RHP

IL-8 (CXC)

-a

Reduced

Reduced by RHP

Mainly reduced recruitment of neutrophils

CXCL10/IP-10 (CXC)

Reduced

Reduced

-a

Recruitment of activated T cells diminished

Interleukins/cytokines

IL-10

Increased

Increased

-a

Enhancement of anti-inflammatory processes

IL-1α

Reduced

Reduced

Reduced

Attenuation of inflammatory processes

IL-1β

Reduced

Not significant

Reduced

Attenuation of inflammatory processes

IL-6

Unchanged

Unchanged

Reduced by RHP

Modulation of inflammatory processes in OA and RA

TNF-α

Reduced

Reduced

-a

Effects on initiation and progression of RA

Growth & differentiation factors

G-CSF

Unchanged

Increased by RHP

Not significant

Modulation of immune response

GM-CSF

Unchanged

Increased by RHP

Not significant

Modulation of immune response

VEGF

-a

Increased by RHP

Not significant

Promotes angiogenesis

IFN-γ

Unchanged

Reduced

Not significant

Altered immune response


a- = not measured

Schwager et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2011 11:105   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-11-105

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