Table 1

Baseline demographic characteristics of study population

Variables

Placebo

GTP

Placebo+TC

GTP+TC

P value


Number

44

47

42

38

Age [y], mean ± SD

57.6 ± 7.5

56.5 ± 5.5

58.3 ± 7.7

57.6 ± 6.7

NS

Years after menopause

12.5 ± 8.4

11.2 ± 8.3

14.2 ± 11.1

11.4 ± 9.1

NS

Height [cm]

162.8 ± 7.8

162.7 ± 5.4

161.9 ± 6.2

164.1 ± 7.1

NS

Weight [kg]

77.4 ± 15.4

74.5 ± 11.9

74.1 ± 12.1

72.9 ± 14.6

NS

Body mass index [kg/m2]

29.2 ± 6.1

28.1 ± 4.4

28.3 ± 4.9

27.1 ± 5.8

NS

Bone mineral density [T-score]

Femoral Neck

-1.50 ± 0.62

-1.51 ± 0.64

-1.64 ± 0.56

-1.69 ± 0.59

NS

Trochanter

-1.05 ± 0.81

-1.10 ± 0.70

-1.27 ± 0.62

-1.29 ± 0.71

NS

Total spine

-0.74 ± 0.56

-0.75 ± 0.67

-0.95 ± 0.65

-0.97 ± 0.51

NS

L1-L4

-0.60 ± 0.85

-0.53 ± 1.09

-0.65 ± 0.76

-0.75 ± 0.83

NS

Serum 25 (OH)D [ng/mL]

32.5 ± 8.4

36.2 ± 11.0

31.5 ± 11.5

30.1 ± 6.6

NS

Serum PTH [pg/mL]

47.8 ± 20.1

45.6 ± 22.5

48.2 ± 22.3

47.2 ± 27.1

NS

Serum TSH [mIU/L]

2.50 ± 1.38

2.09 ± 1.13

2.38 ± 0.94

2.56 ± 1.30

NS

General health questions [n (%)]

General health rated "good"

35 (79.5)

38 (80.9)

38 (90.4)

30 (78.9)

NS

Height decrease with age

3 (6.8)

10 (21.2)

7 (16.6)

9 (23.6)

NS

Broken bone as adult

9 (20.4)

13 (27.6)

7 (16.6)

14 (36.8)

NS

History of osteopenia

9 (20.4)

8 (17.0)

9 (21.4)

9 (23.9)

NS

Family history of low bone mass

19 (36.3)

24 (51.0)

13(30.9)

23 (60.5)

NS

History of osteoarthritis

9 (20.4)

5 (10.6)

4 (9.5)

4 (10.5)

NS

Severe joint or muscle pain

16 (36.3)

12 (25.5)

9 (21.4)

9 (23.6)

NS

Back or leg pain

11 (25.0)

12 (25.5)

4 (9.5)

5 (13.1)

NS

History of diabetes

1 (2.3)

5 (10.6)

6 (14.2)

3 (7.8)

NS

History of hypertension

13 (29.5)

9 (19.1)

10 (23.8)

8 (21.0)

NS

Physical activity profiles, mean ± SD

Exercise frequency [sessions/week]

2.4 ± 2.1

2.0 ± 2.1

1.8 ± 2.0

1.9 ± 2.0

NS

Exercise time [min/session]

22 ± 19

23 ± 21

29 ± 46

23 ± 22

NS

Mood assessment§, mean ± SD

5.7 ± 5.2

5.9 ± 4.9

5.9 ± 5.6

6.3 ± 4.2

NS

Lifestyle profiles [n (%)]

History of steroid use

9 (20.4)

7 (14.8)

8 (19.0)

12 (31.5)

NS

Antidepressant medication use

20 (40.5)

19 (40.4)

17 (40.4)

18 (47.3)

NS

Estrogen/HRT use

9 (20.4)

10 (21.2)

10 (23.8)

7 (18.4)

NS

Calcium/Vitamin D use

22 (50)

23 (48.9)

21 (50)

17 (44.7)

NS

Trouble sleeping

16 (36.4)

17 (36.1)

16 (38.1)

12 (31.5)

NS

Current cigarette smoking

2 (4.5)

2 (4.2)

2 (4.7)

1 (2.6)

NS

Alcohol consumption

23 (52.2)

18 (38.2)

18 (42.8)

21 (55.2)

NS

Tea consumption

26 (59.1)

23 (48.9)

22 (52.3)

27 (71.0)

NS

Coffee consumption

28 (63.6)

34 (72.3)

28 (66.6)

24 (65.5)

NS

Soda consumption

28 (63.6)

29 (65.9)

23 (54.7)

27 (71.1)

NS

Juice consumption

12 (27.2)

22 (46.8)

19 (45.2)

21 (55.2)

NS


GTP, green tea polyphenols; TC, Tai Chi; 25(OH)D, 25-hydroxy-vitamin D; SD, standard deviation; PTH, parathyroid hormone; TSH, thyroid stimulating hormone; HRT, hormone replacement treatment; NS, not significant (P > 0.005).

§Mood assessment was performed by the Yesavage self-rated Geriatric Depression Score.

Shen et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2010 10:76   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-10-76

Open Data