Table 2

Systematic reviews of clinical trials of acupuncture & acupressure in rheumatic diseases, addiction, nausea and asthma

Feature

Author Year

Indication

Controls

Studies

s

Results

Conclusion

1 / 2 / 3

/ 4 / 5


Rheumatic diseases

Berman 99

fibromylgia

sham, other

3 RCT, 3 CS

y / y / y /

Acupuncture more effective than sham for

Limited amount of evidence positive.

[28]

treatments

y / n

symptoms and global ratings

Further research needed

Ernst 97 [29]

osteoarthriti

sham, other

13 RCT

y / p / n

Both sham and true acupuncture improve

The notion that acupuncture is

s

and no

/ y / n

symptoms but better trials suggest no

superior to sham-needling is not

treatment

difference between the two

supported by data from controlled

clinical trials

Lauten-

inflammator

sham, no

2 RCT, 7

n / p / n

Controlled trials contradictory, quality often

Acupuncture cannot be

schläger 97

y

treatment,

CCT, 9 CS

/ y / n

low

recommended for rheumatoid

[30]

rheumatoid

other acup.

arthritis, spondarthropathy, lupus

diseases

eryth., sclerodermia

Jacobs 91**

rheumatic

sham, other

23 CCT

p / y / n

7 trials positive, 13 trials no effect over

No specific conclusion on

[31]

diseases

treatment

/ y / n

placebo or control, 3 trials unclear

acupuncture (generally: no

convincing evidence for alternative

therapies in rheumat.)

ter Riet 89

rheumatoid

sham

1 RCT,

y / p / y

Only 1 trial summarized; this found positive

No definitive conclusions possible

[32]

arthritis

2CCT

/ n / n

effects on pain but not on inflammation

Addiction

White

smoking

sham, other

20 RCT

y / y / y /

Acupuncture vs. sham: OR for cessation

There is no evidence for the specific

2000/99

cessation

and no

y / y

1.22 (95%CI 0.99–1.49) after treatment and

effectiveness of acupuncture in

[33,34]

treatment

1.02 (0.72–1.43) at 12 months. No difference

smoking cessation greater than a

compared to other interventions, better than

placebo effect

no treatment

White 97

smoking

sham

7 RCT

y / y / y /

6 of the 7 studies do not yield cessation rates

Acupuncture for smoking cessation

[35]

cessation

y / n

that are significantly different from sham

does not produce an effect greater

acupuncture

than placebo

Law 95* [36]

smoking

sham, other

8 RCT

p / p / n

Compared to control 3% (95%CI -1 to 6%)

Acupuncture is ineffective

cessation

and no

/ n / y

more participants stopped smoking with

treatment

acupuncture

ter Riet

A. smoking

sham, other

A. 13 RCT, 2

y / p / y

A. 3 of 15 studies positive

Claims that acupuncture is effective

90/89 [37,38

cessat.

and no

CCT

/ y / n

for the treatment of tobacco, alcohol

39]

B. alcohol

treatment,

B. 1RCT, 1

B. 2 of 2 studies positive

and heroine addiction are not

addict.

other acu

CCT

supported by sound clinical research

C. heroine

C. 5 CCT

C. 3 of 5 studies positive

addict.

Nausea

Lee 99 [40]

postoperati

sham, other

19 RCT

y / p / y

RR of early vomiting compared to

Acupuncture equivalent to commonly

ve nausea

and no

/ y / y

antiemetics 0.89 (95%CI 0.47–1.67) and to

used antiemetic drugs. More effective

(prevention)

treatment

placebo 0.47 (0.34–0.64), late vomiting 0.81

than placebo in first 6 h after surgery

(0.46–1.42)

in adults but no benefit observed in

children

Aikins

nausea in

sham, no

7 RCT

y / p / n

6 of 7 P6 acupressure trials positive, 1 trial

Available evidence positive but

Murphy 99**

pregnancy

treatment

/ y / no

on P6 electrical stimulation positive

equivocal

[41]

Jewell 98*

nausea in

sham, no

4 RCT

y / y / y /

3 of 4 P6 acupressure trials positive, 2 cross-

Available evidence positive but

[42]

early

treatment

y / y

over trials excluded, best trial negative

equivocal

pregnancy

Vickers 96

nausea in

sham, other

33 CCT

y / y / y /

27 of 33 trials positive, 11 of 12 sham-

Except when administered under

[43]

surgery,

and no

y / n

controlled randomized trials positive

anesthesia P6 acupuncture point

(stimulation

pregnancy,

treatment

stimulation seems to be an effective

at point P6)

chemother.

antiemetic technic

Asthma

Linde 98 [44]

asthma

sham

7 RCT

y / y / y /

Highly heterogeneous trials; two positive, five

It is not yet possible to make any

(acute

y / p

found no difference

recommendations about the practice

attack trials

of acupuncture in the treatment of

excl.)

asthma

Linde 96 [45]

asthma

sham, no,

15 RCT

y / y / y /

Contradictory results, highly heterogeneous

There is insufficient data to draw

other

y / n

trials

reliable conclusions about the

treatment

effectiveness of acupuncture for

asthma

Kleijnen 91

asthma

unclear

9 RCT, 4

y / p / y

Quality low, contradictory results

Claims that acupuncture is effective

[46] & ter

CCT

/ n / n

in the treatment of asthma are not

Riet 89 [47]

based on well performed clinical trials


legend see table 1

Linde et al. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2001 1:3   doi:10.1186/1472-6882-1-3

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