Table 3

Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for Preeclampsia According to Maternal History of Depressive Symptoms during Pregnancy as Measured by the PHQ-9 Item Questionnaire, Lima, Peru, 2004–2005

PHQ-9 Items

Preeclampsia Cases (N = 339)

Control Subjects (N = 337)

Unadjusted OR (95% CI)

Adjusted OR (95% CI)


Little interest or pleasure in doing things

Not at all

185

247

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

128

68

2.5 (1.8–3.6)

2.5 (1.7–3.7)

More than half the days

26

21

1.7 (0.9–3.0)

2.2 (1.1–4.4)

Nearly every day

0

1

---

---

Feeling down, depressed, or hopeless

Not at all

92

141

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

101

40

3.9 (2.5–6.1)

3.7 (2.3–5.9)

More than half the days

142

153

1.4 (1.0–2.0)

1.3 (0.9–1.9)

Nearly every day

4

3

2.0 (0.5–9.3)

---

Trouble falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much

Not at all

184

220

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

73

36

2.4 (1.6–3.8)

2.4 (1.5–3.8)

More than half the days

77

79

1.2 (0.8–1.7)

1.2 (0.8–1.8)

Nearly every day

5

2

3.0 (0.6–15.6)

3.3 (0.6–18.8)

Feeling tired or having little energy

Not at all

168

206

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

93

58

2.0 (1.3–2.9)

1.8 (1.2–2.7)

More than half the days

76

71

1.3 (0.9–1.9)

1.3 (0.9–2.0)

Nearly every day

2

2

1.2 (0.2–8.8)

1.2 (0.2–10.1)

Poor appetite or eating too much

Not at all

176

227

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

75

51

1.9 (1.3–2.9)

1.8 (1.2–2.8)

More than half the days

80

57

1.8 (1.2–2.7)

1.7 (1.1–2.6)

Nearly every day

8

2

5.2 (1.1–24.6)

4.6 (0.9–23.4)

Feeling bad about yourself – or that you are a failure or have let yourself or your family down

Not at all

262

300

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

58

27

2.5 (1.5–4.0)

2.3 (1.4–3.9)

More than half the days

17

10

2.0 (0.9–4.3

2.1 (0.9–5.2)

Nearly every day

2

0

---

---

Trouble concentrating on activities such as reading the newspaper or watching TV

Not at all

274

302

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

37

18

2.3 (1.3–4.1)

2.4 (1.3–4.6)

More than half the days

26

16

1.8 (0.9–3.4)

1.8 (0.9–3.7)

Nearly every day

2

1

2.2 (0.2–24.4)

3.0 (0.2–37.0)

Moving or speaking so slowly that other people could have noticed.

Not at all

307

323

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

15

7

2.3 (0.9–5.6)

2.0 (0.8–5.4)

More than half the days

15

6

2.6 (1.0–6.9)

3.2 (1.1–9.1)

Nearly every day

2

0

---

---

Missing

0

1

Thought that you would be better off dead or hurting yourself in some way

Not at all

260

276

1.0 (referent)

1.0 (referent)

Several days

36

37

1.0 (0.6–1.7)

0.9 (0.5–1.5)

More than half the days

41

24

1.8 (1.1–3.1)

1.8 (0.99–3.3)

Nearly every day

2

0

---

---

Degree of difficulty of daily living if you had any of above symptoms

Not difficult at all

175

183

1.0 (referent)

1.00 (referent)

Somewhat difficult

108

49

2.3 (1.6–3.4)

2.2 (1.4–3.3)

Very difficult

18

10

1.9 (0.9–4.2)

2.3 (0.9–5.7)

Extremely difficult

0

0

---

---

Unknown or N/A

38

95


Adjusted by maternal age (continuous), nulliparity (yes vs. no) and maternal pre-pregnancy overweight status

Qiu et al. BMC Women's Health 2007 7:15   doi:10.1186/1472-6874-7-15

Open Data