Table 1

Principal characteristics of the included studies

Author/year/

country

Design

No. of patients/

levels

Inclusion criteria

Exclusion criteria

Estimated age of VF

Follow-up


Lieberman [25]

2003. USA

P

63/264

Painful progressive osteolytic VF secondary to multiple myeloma

Unstable (by virtue of myelomatous destruction of the posterior elements) or with retropulsed tissue or bone fragments.

11 mo

(0.5-24 mo)

4 mo


Fourney [26]

2003. USA

R

BKP:15/32

VP: 34/65

VF with disabling pain refractory to prior medical and/or physical therapy in cancer patients

Epidural compression of the neural elements; failure to localize symptomatic levels; radicular pain; intolerance to being positioned prone or significant medical contraindications

3.2 mo

(1 wk-26 mo)

4.5 mo


Lane [27]

2004. USA

P

19/46

Painful VF secondary to multiple myeloma

Not reported

>3 mo

3 mo


Vrionis [28]

2005. USA

R

50/128

VF with intractable mechanical pain refractory to medical and/or physical therapy in cancer patients.

Overt instability; clinical and/or radiological spinal cord compression; lesions above T3; absence of correlating symptoms (not mechanical pain and/or not localized to the area of VF).

13 cases:3 mo

35 cases: 10 mo

9 mo


Kose [30]

2006. Turkey

R

BKP: 18/22

VP: 16/26

Symptomatic VF in myeloma with pain refractory to medical therapy.

Canal stenosis

Not reported

12 mo


Pflugmacher[33]

2007. Germany

P

26/59

VF with severe refractory pain in patients with myeloma

Not reported

Not reported

24 mo


Pflugmacher[34]

2008. Germany

P

65/99

Metastatic VF with severe and refractory back pain.

Not reported

Not reported

24 mo


P: Prospective, R: Retrospective, BKP: Balloon Kyphoplasty, VP: Vertebroplasty, VF: Vertebral Fracture

Bouza et al. BMC Palliative Care 2009 8:12   doi:10.1186/1472-684X-8-12

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