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Association between polymorphism of TGFA Taq I and cleft Lip and/or palate: a meta-analysis

Cuijuan Feng1*, Enjiao Zhang2, Weiyi Duan2, Zhongfei Xu2, Yang Zhang1 and Li Lu2

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, No.117 North Nanjing Street, Shenyang 110002, PR China

2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110002, PR China

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BMC Oral Health 2014, 14:88  doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-88

Published: 11 July 2014



Cleft lip and palate (CL/P) is one of the most common malformations in humans. Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is a well characterized mammalian growth factor which might contribute to the development of CL/P. This meta-analysis aimed to summarize the association between the TGFA Taq I polymorphisms and CL/P.


We retrieved the relevant articles from PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science and SCOPUS databases. Studies were selected using specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. The odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to assess the association between TGFA Taq I polymorphism and CL/P risk. Meta-analyses were performed on the total data set and separately for the major ethnic groups, disease type and source of control. All analyses were performed using the Stata software.


Twenty articles were included in the present analysis. There is a significant association between the TGFA Taq I polymorphism and CL/P (C1C2 vs C1C1: OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.23-2.25, C2C2 + C1C2 vs C1C1C1: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.15-2.01; C2 vs C1:OR = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.12-1.78). Stratified analyses suggested that the TGFA Taq I polymorphism was significantly associated with CL/P in Caucasians (C1C2 vs C1C1: OR = 1.95, 95% CI = 1.34-2.86; C2C2 + C1C2 vs C1C1: OR = 1.68, 95% CI = 1.18-2.38; C2 vs V1: OR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.14 -2.02).


TGFA Taq I polymorphism may be associated with the risk of CL/P.

Cleft Lip and Palate; Clip lip; Clip palate; Transforming growth factor alpha; Single nucleotide polymorphism; Meta-analysis