Email updates

Keep up to date with the latest news and content from BMC Oral Health and BioMed Central.

Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Informing a culturally appropriate approach to oral health and dental care for pre-school refugee children: a community participatory study

Pam Nicol1*, Arwa Al-Hanbali1, Nigel King2, Linda Slack-Smith2 and Sarah Cherian13

Author Affiliations

1 School of Paediatrics and Child Health, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Science, M561 University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Western Australia

2 School of Dentistry, M512, University of Western Australia, Perth 6009, Western Australia

3 Department of Paediatric & Adolescent Medicine, Princess Margaret Hospital, GPO Box D184, Perth 6840, Western Australia

For all author emails, please log on.

BMC Oral Health 2014, 14:69  doi:10.1186/1472-6831-14-69

Published: 13 June 2014

Abstract

Background

Pre-school children in families of recently settled refugees often have very high rates of early childhood caries (ECC). ECC is associated with a high level of morbidity and is largely preventable, however effective culturally appropriate models of care are lacking. This study aimed to provide a deeper understanding of the refugee experience related to early oral health by exploring pre-school refugee families (i) understanding of ECC and child oral health, (ii) experiences of accessing dental services and (iii) barriers and enablers for achieving improved oral health. The knowledge gained will be critical to the development of effective early oral health programs in refugee children.

Methods

Community based participatory qualitative methodology using focus groups of resettled refugee families and community refugee nurse interviews. A community reference group was established and a bi-lingual community research associate was employed. Transcripts were analysed for thematic content using NVivo software.

Results

There were 44 participants: eight focus groups (nine countries of origin) and five interviews. Emergent themes were (i) the major influence of parents’ previous experience, including their beliefs about deciduous (baby) teeth, traditional feeding practices and poverty; and a consequent lack of understanding of the importance of early oral health and early dental caries, (ii) the burden of resettlement including prioritising, parenting, learning about new foods and how to assimilate into the community, and (iii) refugees’ difficulties in accessing both information and dental services, and the role of schools in addressing these issues. An Opportunities for Change Model was proposed.

Conclusions

The main implication of the study is the demonstration of how enhanced understanding of the refugee experience can inform improvement in early oral prevention and treatment. The community participatory methodology of the study provided a basis for cross-cultural understanding and has already assisted in translating the findings and raising awareness in the provision of targeted refugee oral health services.

Keywords:
Early childhood caries; Refugee experience; Cultural