Table 4

Regression coefficients, hazard ratio (HR), and goodness-of-fit of TRIAD Models and comparisons of the hazard ratios with the original risk equations
TRIAD models Original
Model Variable Coeff Standard Error or 95%CI p-value HR HR
Incident Age (year) 0.038 0.008 <.0001 1.038* 1.059
UKPDS Female (yes/no) −0.109 0.188 0.561 0.896* 0.525
African American (yes/no) −0.154 0.281 0.585 0.858* 0.390
(yes/no) 0.440 0.235 0.061 1.552 1.350
HbA1c 0.075 0.054 0.170 1.077 1.183
SBP 0.010 0.005 0.034 1.010 1.008
loge (TCa/HDL) 0.588 0.359 0.102 1.801* 3.845
C index 0.66 (0.61, 0.71)
p-value for GOF 0.48
UKPDS Age (year) 0.035 0.009 <.0001 1.035* 1.059
Female (yes/no) −0.122 0.188 0.517 0.885* 0.525
African American (yes/no) −0.160 0.281 0.569 0.852* 0.390
Smoker (yes/no) 0.450 0.235 0.055 1.568 1.350
A1c 0.066 0.055 0.234 1.068 1.183
SBP 0.010 0.005 0.037 1.010 1.008
loge (TCa/HDL) 0.612 0.358 0.089 1.844 3.845
Duration (year) 0.012 0.009 0.177 1.012* 1.078
C index 0.66 (0.61, 0.71)
p-value for GOF 0.62
Framingham
-Initial Age (year) 0.037 0.009 <.0001 1.038 1.049
Male TC, mg/dL
 <160 −0.154 0.385 0.690 0.857 0.517
 160-199 - - - - -
 200–239 0.415 0.239 0.083 1.514 1.194
 240-279 0.052 0.422 0.903 1.053 1.658
 ≥280 −0.228 1.055 0.829 0.796 1.929
HDL, mg/dL
 <35 −0.004 0.355 0.990 0.996 1.645
 35-44 −0.179 0.306 0.560 0.836 1.275
 45-59 - - - - -
 50-59 −0.297 0.397 0.455 0.743 0.950
 ≥60 −0.272 0.465 0.558 0.762 0.615
Blood Pressureb
 Optimal −0.513 0.459 0.264 0.599 0.998
 Normal - - - - -
 High normal −0.059 0.326 0.857 0.943 1.327
 Hypertension stage I 0.037 0.299 0.903 1.037 1.685
 Hypertension stage II–IV −0.009 0.376 0.982 0.991 1.856
Smoker 0.216 0.273 0.429 1.241 1.688
C index 0.65 (0.59, 0.70)
p-value for GOF 0.53
Framingham
-Initial Age (year) 0.157 0.080 0.050 1.170* 1.402
Female Age2 (year) −0.001 0.001 0.103 0.999 0.997
TC, mg/dL
 <160 −0.759 0.547 0.168 0.468 0.77
 160-199 - - - - -
 200–239 −0.072 0.233 0.756 0.930 1.231
 240-279 0.302 0.302 0.318 1.353 1.276
 ≥280 0.693 0.356 0.052 1.999 1.708
HDL, mg/dL
 <35 0.415 0.461 0.369 1.515 2.324
 35-44 0.132 0.291 0.652 1.141 1.459
 50-59 0.210 0.336 0.534 1.233 1.219
 50-59 - - - - -
 ≥60 0.372 0.269 0.167 1.451** 0.651
Blood Pressureb
 Optimal −0.638 0.469 0.174 0.528 0.586
 Normal - - - - -
 High normal −0.298 0.318 0.348 0.742 0.935
 Hypertension stage I 0.119 0.270 0.660 1.126 1.301
 Hypertension stage II–IV 0.340 0.301 0.259 1.404 1.593
Smoker 0.440 0.236 0.062 1.553 1.340
C index 0.67 (0.63, 0.72)
p-value for GOF 0.62
-Secondary Age (year) 0.006 0.007 0.426 1.005 1.015
Male loge(TC/HDL) 0.604 0.261 0.023 1.827 1.962
C index 0.55 (0.51, 0.59)
p-value for GOF 0.27
-Secondary Age (year) 0.012 0.008 0.131 1.012 1.022
Female loge (TC/HDL) 0.336 0.335 0.319 1.395 2.245
loge (SBP) 0.793 0.560 0.157 2.248 3.780
Smoker (yes/no) −0.266 0.240 0.269 0.764 1.427
C index 0.55 (0.50, 0.59)
p-value for GOF 0.23

aTC = Total Cholesterol.

bBlood Pressure categories (mmHg): Optimal: Systolic < 120, Diastolic <80; Normal: Systolic 120–129, Diastolic <80-84; High normal: Systolic 130–139, Diastolic 85–89; Hypertension stage I: Systolic 140–159, Diastolic 90–99, Hypertension stage II–IV: Systolic ≥ 160, Diastolic ≥100 [4].

*p<0.05, **p<0.01, ***P<0.001 in the HR comparisons of the TRIAD models with original models. Note that in comparing HRs with the Framingham-initial equations, the actual p-values may be slightly bigger than those reported here because the standard errors of the original regression coefficient estimates were not provided in original study [4] and they were not included in these calculations.

Lu et al.

Lu et al. BMC Endocrine Disorders 2012 12:12   doi:10.1186/1472-6823-12-12

Open Data