Docking studies on novel analogues of 8 methoxy fluoroquinolones against GyrA mutants of Mycobacterium tuberculosis
1 Centre for Biotechnology, Anna University, Chennai 600 025, India
2 Department of Biotechnology, Sri Venkateswara College of Engineering, Sriperumbudur 602 105, India
3 Department of Biotechnology, Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai 600 036, India
4 Foundation for Innovative New Diagnostics, 16, Avenue de Budé 1202 Geneva, Switzerland
BMC Structural Biology 2011, 11:47 doi:10.1186/1472-6807-11-47Published: 12 December 2011
Fluoroquinolone resistance is a serious threat in the battle against the treatment of multi drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) and extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (XDR-TB). Fluoroquinolone resistant isolates from India had shown to have evolved several mutants in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of DNA gyrase A subunit (GyrA), the target of fluoroquinolone. In view of high prevalence of mutations in the 'hot spot' region, a study on combinatorial drug design was carried out to identify better analogues for the treatment of MDR-TB. The gyrA subunit 'hot spot' region of codons 90, 94 and 95 were modeled into their corresponding protein folds and used as receptors for the docking studies. Further, invitro tests were carried using the parent compounds, namely gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin and correlated with the obtained docking scores.
Molecular docking and in vitro studies correlated well in demonstrating the enhanced activity of moxifloxacin, when compared to gatifloxacin, on ofloxacin sensitive and resistant strains comprising of clinical isolates of MDR-TB. The evolved lead structures targeting against mutant QRDR receptors were guanosine and cholesteryl esters of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. They showed consistently high binding affinity values of -10.3 and -10.1 kcal/mol respectively with the target receptors. Of these, the guanosine ester showed highest binding affinity score and its log P value lied within the Lipinski's range indicating that it could have better absorptivity when it is orally administered thereby having an enhanced activity against MTB.
The docking results showed that the addition of the cholesteryl and guanosine esters to the 'DNA gyrase binding' region of gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin enhanced the binding affinity of these parent molecules with the mutant DNA gyrase receptors. Viewing the positive correlation for the docking and in vitro results with the parent compounds, these lead structures could be further evaluated for their in vitro and in vivo activity against MDR-TB.