Anchored clathrate waters on the ice-nucleating sites of PbINP. A) PbINP is shown in surface mode, with oxygen atoms coloured red, nitrogen atoms blue, and carbon atoms green. Water electron density is shown as black mesh contoured at σ = 6. The N and C termini of each chain of the dimer are indicated. B) Anchored clathrate waters (red spheres) built into the electron density (contoured at σ = 6) align across the entire surface of PbINP. C) Match of anchored clathrate waters present down the SLTA side of PbINP to the primary prism plane of ice. Ice lattice waters are indicated by small red spheres, while those coloured aqua match the positions of waters on the ice nucleating site of the protein. D) Same as in C), except highlighting the match of anchored clathrate waters aligned down the TQTA site of the PbINP dimer to the primary prism plane of ice.
Garnham et al. BMC Structural Biology 2011 11:36 doi:10.1186/1472-6807-11-36