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Open Access Highly Accessed Research article

Crystal structure of the signaling helix coiled-coil domain of the β1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase

Xiaolei Ma1, Annie Beuve2 and Focco van den Akker1*

Author Affiliations

1 Department of Biochemistry/RT500, Case Western Reserve University, 10900 Euclid Ave. Cleveland, OH 44106, USA

2 Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, UMDNJ - New Jersey Medical School Medical Sciences Building, I655/I664 185 S. Orange Avenue, Newark, NJ 07103, USA

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BMC Structural Biology 2010, 10:2  doi:10.1186/1472-6807-10-2

Published: 27 January 2010

Abstract

Background

The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner.

Results

To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGCβ1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 Å resolution.

Conclusions

The CC structure of sGCβ1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.